LGBTQ and Sexual Orientation

“Bubar, Joe. “”Remembering Matthew Shepard: The brutal killing of a Wyoming college student 20 years ago raised awareness about violence against the LGBTQ community and led to an expansion of hate-crime laws.”” New York Times Upfront, 28 Jan. 2019, p. 16+. Opposing Viewpoints in Context,

http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A573714248/OVIC?u=coll19000&sid=OVIC&xid=cea1a8b6. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019.

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Bubar, Joe in this Article Remembering Matthew Shepard: The brutal killing of a Wyoming college student 20 years ago raised awareness about violence against the LGBTQ community and led to an expansion of hate-crime laws gives insight on Matthew Shepard’s life. Matthew was a homosexual male, that always wanted to be involved with politics since he was young. Matthew even wanted to serve his country. At 21, Shepard was a senior at the University of Wyoming. Matthew’s death made such a huge impact. He now symbolizes for the fight against hate and unfairness. He was kidnapped, beaten, and tortured, and left to die because he was a homosexal male. Important protests have been made for LGBTQ people, combating against hate and violence crimes. Spreading the word throughout the nation, Matthew Shepard will be remembered. Bubar opinion was in fact not biased due to many others writing articles about the death of Matthew Shepard, yet his article didn’t provide much relevance with bullying inside of the school system. This author writes in a formal tone towards his readers.

Charlesworth, Jonathan. That’s So Gay! : Challenging Homophobic Bullying. Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2015. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=960759&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Jonathan Charlesworth, in this eBook “Challenging homosexual bullying.” explains what each word in LGBTQ stands for. Jonathan main purpose for writing this book is so to understand how the word “gay” is used in school. The acronym stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer, which many know. “Gay” refers to a male who is attracted both romantically and sexually to the same gender. Many people are affected by homosexual bullying. Despite the difference of many, there are children, staff, and parents who supports these group of individuals. Some school systems are “trying” to provide safe environments to all. Schools just want every child to feel safe and equal despite one’s sexuality. Charlesworth’s opinion is not biased. This author speaks in a very formal manner for his readers, he supports his facts with proven research.

Formby, Eleanor. “Limitations of Focussing on Homophobic, Biphobic and Transphobic ‘Bullying’ to Understand and Address LGBT Young People’s Experiences within and beyond School.” Sex Education, vol. 15, no. 6, Nov. 2015, pp. 626–640. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14681811.2015.1054024.

Eleanor Formby, a researcher for Sheffield Hallam University, in this Article “Limitations of focussing on homophobic, biphobic and transphobic “bullying” to understand and address LGBT people young people’s experience within and beyond school.” explains the limits on bullying towards each category of the LGBT group. Eleanor wants to see how she can help to protect the LGBT participants against bullying. For each sexual orientation group, she’s finding many ways to help and find different methods to help protect them from being bullied and make them feel comfortable. This bullying towards the LGBT community is an issue that can be overlooked or understood when bullying is the focus within schools. It’s more to it. It’s not just who’s bullying who, both party should be identified thoroughly, not just as two people. Gender, race, sexuality, ethnicity, and etc. should not be a reason someone is bullied. They should not be a victim of bullying, nobody should. In this case of bullying towards someone’s sexuality, it can leave negative and negative experiences. This article does relate to the bullying LGBT topic, but it just speaks on the topic and not give exact details. Eleanor voices her thoughts, yet, she can use evidence to back up her claim. This author speaks in a formal tone for other researchers.

Greene, Darrell C., et al. “Long-Term Outcomes of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Recalled School Victimization.” Journal of Counseling & Development, vol. 92, no. 4, Oct. 2014, pp. 406–417. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.2014.00167.x.

Greene, Darrell in this Article, Long-Term Outcomes of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Recalled School Victimization, explains that the school system is the most common place bullying happens which can lead to drug use to the LGBTQ community. Out of 594 people that took the LGBTQ survey, identified 33% of them were homosexual males. Greene supports his explanation by stating some of the drugs, such as marijuana, cigarettes, and more. These drugs are likely are used via ones depression, stress, and shame for being picked on for being gay. In 2004, it was studied and said that many LGBTQ’s suffer from post-traumatic stress due to being bullied because of their sexuality. Many is suffering from childhood or adolescent school bullying. Around this time, this is when many are most vulnerable. Many are trying to find out who they really are and how they identify their self. Vulnerable people can feel so low of themselves when and or if bullying happens to them. This article is relevant to the bullying of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. The author writes in a formal tone for his readers and his opinion is not bias.

Hollis, Leah P., and Scott A. McCalla. “Bullied Back in the Closet.” Journal of Psychological Issues in Organizational Culture, vol. 4, no. 2, July 2013, p. 6. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=90467738&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Leah Hollis, an assistant professor, in this Article, “Bullied back into the closet” as well as the UCLA school of law, estimates that nine million of Americans identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or queer. This number of Americans is based on comfortable LGBTQ respondents speaking on their sexuality. A 2012 study administered by Hollis and others found that 78% of the LGBTQ population has been a victim of bullying in the school system or have witnessed the events of homosexual bullying. Hollis’s study shows that bullying towards homosexuals, have affected many of the victims. Hollis’s plan is to get many people to feel great and confident about their sexuality. She wants everyone to develop a sense of one’s self. “Embrace self identity.” Hollis and others are willing to create a community that supports sexual orientation. This plan can relieve many people. Organizations, professors, homosexuals, and many more wants to put a stop to discrimination towards lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgenders, and queers. Hollis speaks in a formal way for her students and colleagues and gives her opinion which is then made into a plan to help building a support group..

Johns, Michelle M., et al. “Violence Victimization, Substance Use, and Suicide Risk Among Sexual Minority High School Students – United States, 2015-2017.” MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 67, no. 43, Nov. 2018, pp. 1211–1215. EBSCOhost, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6743a4.

Michelle Johns, a behavioral health scientist, in this weekly report, “Violence Victimization, Substance Abuse and Suicide Risk among sexual minority high school students United States, 2015-2017” states that there’s a higher risk with homosexuals than with heterosexuals that are likely to abuse drugs and or attempt/commit suicide. Sexual minority youths might experience many outcomes. Gay males are reported to be victimized more than any other group. There was a survey taken in the years 2015-2017, of one’s experience of victimization because of one’s sexuality. Study shows that gay males are bullied electronically, at school, and more places. Gay males have a 17.7% chance of being bullied while straight males have a 14.6% chance. Experienced physical dating violence equals 6.0% towards heterosexual males and 24.2% for homoseuxal males. Every category that was created showed at higher percentage with homosexual males than heterosexual males in the school system. Gay males have the highest risk factor of doing drugs and or attempting/commiting suicide because of being bullied. Page: 1211-1212. Johns article and survey is a big help to many and is proven by research. Johns speak in a very formal tone giving her audience which is most likely other researchers.

Kopels, Sandra, and Megan S. Paceley. “Reducing Bullying toward LGBTQ Youths in Schools.” School Social Work Journal, vol. 37, no. 1, Sept. 2012, pp. 96–111. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1000553&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Sandra Kopels, a Professor, in the article “Reduce bullying toward LGBTQ youths in school” states that bullying is a very important issue.It have negative effects that it comes with. School social workers need to understand the effects and causes of bullying. They need to see the nature in which bullying occurs and come up with ways to preven bulling of the LGBTQ communiy to respond appropriately. There are many steps to take to improve better outcomes for this group of students. Everyone, including lesbians, bisexuals, gays, queers, transgenders, and heterosexuals should feel safe in the school system. School should be a safe haven for students, yet many are being bullied because of one’s sexuality. Gay males and transgenders are known to be affected the most. Kopels article is very detailed, yet it doesn’t dig into much detail about how they’ll reduce bullying towards the LGBTQ community.

Lovegrove, Peter J., et al. “Examination of the Predictors of Latent Class Typologies of Bullying Involvement among Middle School Students.” Journal of School Violence, vol. 11, no. 1, Jan. 2012, pp. 75–93. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ951728&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Peter Lovegrove, a research director, in this Journal, “Examination of the predictors of latent class typologies of bullying involvement among middle school students” asserts information in a chart he helped create with great evidence. This chart consists of four categories. The four categories are victims, bullies, bully victims, and the uninvolved students. There are 15% of victims, 13% of bullies, 13% of victim bullies, and 59% uninvolved students. Many students who identified as African American reported less bullying rates. The students who identified as White, reported more bullying rates. Gay males were the main target. Many bullies were identified as attention seekers that found homosexual male students the most vulnerable target to them. Page: 75. Lovegrove’s journal to be helpful, yet he could’ve went further into detail.

Orue, Izaskun, et al. “Homophobic Bullying in Schools: The Role of Homophobic Attitudes and Exposure to Homophobic Aggression.” School Psychology Review, vol. 47, no. 1, Mar. 2018, pp. 95–105. EBSCOhost, doi:10.17105/SPR-2017-0063.V47-1.

Orue, Izaskun in this Article, Homophobic Bullying in Schools: The Role of Homophobic Attitudes and Exposure to Homophobic Aggression, explains how bullying is a huge issue in the education system. Orue supports his/her claim by explaining who the bullying is upon and the forms of bullying that’s happening. The forms can be verbally, physically, and also through social media. Bullying is motivated by prejudice, in specific groups such as race, age, and more, but in this case sexuality. Research indicates that homophobic bullying can be indirect and formed through homophobic attitude. Page: 95. The males are scrutinized due to girly behavior. It is very important to be able to notice when someone is being bullied, especially because they’re being bullied due to someone’s sexuality. Orue thinks that what happens in one’s (the bully) life, at home persay, describes their actions. When one is intaking the violence at home, or anywhere else, many find males, especially gay males as a perfect target. The author write in a formal tone for this/her readers. The author gives his opinion saying that what may happen at home or outside of school affects kids, which leads a person to become a bully.

Riese, Jane. “Youth Who Are Bullied Based upon Perceptions About Their Sexuality Orientation. Jane Riese, 2007.” Bully Prevention Program.

Jane Riese, associate director of safe and humane schools, in her web page article article “Youth Who Are Bullied Based upon Perceptions About Their Sexual Orientation” states that bullying most often happens and repeats over time. The bullying is in fact intentional, often used aggressive behavior, and involves an imbalance of power. Stated by Riese, “Verbal bullying is the most frequent form of bullying experienced by both boys and girls.” yet, gives no evidence to back up that claim. Page: 1. She does state that many students hear very rude and cruel words. Her statement doesn’t really need to be proved by evidence because many people either say or hear those negative words being said. The word “faggot” is very cruel and is often used or a word is substituted for that word, like gay. Name calling about one’s sexuality can be very harmful and is considered as harassment. A survey that have been taken at a school, gives evidence that many students uses cruel words. Adults need to be alert on students actions because this is a very big deal. The author speaks in a formal and unbiased tone for other directors and readers. This web page article is a great source the provides some evidence and also evidence that doesn’t need research to be proven.

Salazar, Jorge. “”LGBTQ Students Need a Safe Alternative to Thrive and Stay in School.”” High School Dropouts, edited by Judeen Bartos, Greenhaven Press, 2013. At Issue. Opposing Viewpoints in Context, http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ3010871209/OVIC?u=coll19000&sid=OVIC&xid=220898e6. Accessed 10 Apr. 2019. Originally published as “”Phoenix Nonprofit Opens Arizona’s First LGBT High School,”” College Times, 25 Apr. 2012.

Salazar, Jorge in this Viewpoint Essay, LGBTQ Students Need A Safe Alternative To Strive and Stay In School argues that harassment and bullying towards the LGBT give one-third of that specific group of students the mentality to want to drop out of school. Salazar backs up his argument by giving his thoughts. He say that all LGBTQ’s need a learning environment fear free. There is also alternative programs for LGBT to protect their safety. Page: 1. In this Viewpoint Essay, Salazar’s viewpoint is very useful and he writes in a formal and biased tone for his readers.

Swearer, Susan M., et al. “‘You’re So Gay!:’ Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?” School Psychology Review, vol. 37, no. 2, Jan. 2008, pp. 160–173. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ800134&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Susan Swearer, an associate professor of psychology, in the article “You’re so Gay! Do Different Forms of Bullying Matter for Adolescent Males?” informs people that there are different forms of bullying. She surveyed students in grade 8-10, to find that about 30% of students are either a bully, victim of bullying, and or both. Team member Rivers found that experiences of bullying among youth LGBTQ have a higher rate of post-traumatic stress. Knowing the lengths of bullying is very disturbing. Participants of the survey says bullying happen very early (age wise). Bullying for many started at the age ten or eleven. Bullying, in this case tends to last four or more years from when the bullying first starts. The bully/bullies may not bully the same exact person throughout the whole time but continues with many vulnerable people. Different forms of bullying towards gay males does matter. Page: 164. It is a very big deal in the education system along with bullying anyone. It doesn’t matter what form of bullying is happening an or used, bullying shouldn’t happen at all. Swearer’s article is useful, she speaks in a very formal manner for her colleagues and students who views this article to have a clear understanding.”

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