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“Explain each term or phrase that appears below. Then expand upon the given answer with additional details or an example. Limit your additional explanation to two sentences. (Worth 2 points each, 1 for the correct definition or term and 1 for a correct example or for relevant additional details, for a total of 20 points.) Imitatio: Definition- an imitation and cooption at the same time. A way of paying homage to something and to changing it. Example: Virgil created a imitatio of Homer when he wrote the Aeneid with imitating his journey with Odysseus
Devotion to duty-Definition: Also known of Pietas Example: Achilles had a devotion that he would fulfill his promises to defeat the Trojans. Noah was devoted to spending the 3 months in the ark to please god Kleos: Definition: Pride Example: Odysseus had pride in himself when he told the Cyclops that it was him, when he poked his eye out
How it works
Analogue- similar story that may have had a common ancestor Example: Gilgamesh and Noah are considered analogues. For example, both men had to go through floods to come out better men. Hamartia- a tragedy that happens to the hero or the heroine in the story. Example: Oedipus killed his father without knowing it was him.
Dramatic irony- When the audience has knowledge the characters in the pay do not Example: The audience knew Oedipus married his mother before Oedipus did. Oral poetry: repetition of particular formulas. Repeated memorable phrases. Example: In Genesis 1, God kept on repeating statements when he was creating the heavens and earth.
“Grey-eyed Athena”- This is considered an example of Homeric Epithet, which consists of a noun modified by a compound adjective. Example: another type of Homer Epithet would be wine-dark sea or earth-shaking Poseidon “The purging of emotion,” according to Aristotle: It derives from the word Catharsis, which means a “purging” of emotions or transformation of emotions. Example: Oedipus exclaiming the loss of his father after he discovered he was the one who killed him.
In medias res: In the middle of the action Example: The death of Achilles or the Fall of Troy Short answer. Discuss FIVE of the following quotations in some detail. You must identify the work in which the quotation appears, identify its speaker, and describe its immediate context. Then you should comment on why the quote is important to the overall theme of the work. Your answer should be at least one paragraph long. (10 points each x 5 = 50 points)
“The gods arranged my destiny, but the hand that plucked my eyes were mine alone!” This was a quote spoken by Oedipus Rex. It explains the idea of double determination, which is fate and free will operating at the same time. Oedipus has just found out that he killed his father and does not want to tell the people. If he does, then he will go blind as a punishment. It can also bring up the idea of Hamartia, which is a tragic flaw and the flaw would be that he will end up blind. It is important because it shows that even when everything is coming Oedipus way, tragedy will strike and take a toll on his life.
“It doesn’t matter if you stay in camp or fight/In the end, everyone comes out the same. Coward and hero get the same reward:/ You die. . . “
This was a quote spoken by Achilles in the Iliad. In book 4, he has lost all faith in battling the war between the Greeks and the Trojans. In his long speech, he states that he has no drive to continuing the war and wants to go home after nine years of battling. In the end, he ends up continuing to fight, killing Hector who killed his friend Patroclus. It is important because Achilles got back into the war and killed the Trojans best fighter.
“First pass this test. Just stay awake / for seven days. Prevail against sleep / and perhaps you may prevail against death.”
This a quote is from Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh was a tyrant who would beat women and rape them. God sends a man named Enkidu, who Gilgamesh befriended. They go on several adventures, but Enkidu ends up dying after god punishes him. Gilgamesh mourns the death of his friend and searches for immortality.
He ends ups setting out for the flood which will help him gain an eternal life. It is an important quote because it helps Gilgamesh gain his eternal life to prove that he is worthy of change to become a better man leaving the old man he was in the past.
“Sing to me of the man, Muse, the man of twists and turns/ driven time and again off course. . .”
This is the first line of the Odyssey. The speaker of this quote is Odysseus. It derives from the theme of in media res, which means that it is in the middle of the action, which is the fall of Troy. The Muse is a standard trope of epic literature. Odyssey’s is on his journey home and needs some assistance since he has been gone for about twenty years missing his wife and son. This quote is important because Muse, who is the daughter of Zeus, is helping Odysseus get back on track as he is heading home trying to end his twenty-year trip. And the Lord said, “I will wipe out the human race I created from the face of the earth, from human to cattle to crawling thing to the fowl of the heavens, for I regret that I have made them.”
This is a quote from Genesis 6:7. God is upset after he saw the humans in the world committing evil sins. He planned to wipe out all of the humans and replace them. God then sent Noah, his family, and several animals to spend some time in the Ark as a flood was about to come and wipe people out. It was important because it showed that Noah learned the lesson to not sin.
Essay. Write an original and complete five-paragraph essay, which includes quotations from the text, in response to the following prompt. You may not include external research in this answer (no copying from Wikipedia, Sparknotes, etc.) and you may not collaborate with a classmate. Your work will be checked for academic honesty via turnitin.com. The penalty for plagiarism is an immediate grade of XF for the course. (30 points) Prompt: Stories express cultural values. Write an essay in which you discuss ONE of the following themes in at least THREE different cultural contexts (Ancient Mesopotamian, Greek, and Roman).
Be sure you use specific quotations from the textbook. As well, be sure you essay makes a claim (that is, does not just state a fact), relates that claim to larger themes in the stories, and avoids simply summarizing the plot. The storytelling and language between Ancient Mesopotamian, Greek, and Roman were very distinct between the three. They all wanted to teach a lesson but they all had a unique way of getting their point across. Between the three, they had a protagonist and antagonist that helps teach the point that is trying to get across. They may be distinctive in their own ways but teach a lesson that people will still relive to this day.(Make sure to enter a quote)
For the Ancient Mesopotamia, their way of teaching was a good one. One of the stories that was told, was Noah’s Ark. In the story, Noah was sent by god to stay on an ark for 40 days with his sons and several animals. His story was similar to the Epic of Gilgamesh, where he had to stay in an ark for 7 days. The stories for the ancient Mesopotamians had the protagonist of the story go through trials like staying in an ark for an extended period of time to learn a lesson. (Make sure to enter a quote)
The Greeks had an unique way of telling a story. Most of the Greek stories that were told had a tragic flaw happening to the protagonist of the story. In Oedipus Rex, his flaw was that he killed his father and married his mother. In the Iliad, Achilles tragic flaw was that he let his friend, Patroclus, become disguised as himself and fight in the war. He ultimately was killed by the Trojans. The Greeks wrote their stories surrounding the idea of having a tragic end to most of their stories. (Make sure to enter a quote)
The Roman’s stories had several similarities to the Greek stories. When Virgil wrote the Aeneid, he adopted the idea of stoicism from the Greeks. With stoicism, it shows emotions, fear and envy or passionate love. Virgil was commissioned to write the Aeneid by the Augustus, He wanted to give Rome its own national epic putting Rome on the map. What was included in the Roman stories that differs from the other two writings, is the romans have more of a written style rather than an oral style of writing. The oral style of written is very common in the Greek writings.
They may be distinctive in their own ways but teach a lesson that people will still relive to this day. The readings we had the first half of the class still have great meaning and influence in writings to people today. Still to this day, people are using the lessons that are learned in these stories to write their own stories.”
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