A Closer Examination of Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children. Professional School Counseling, 9(1), 72-77. In this article Bardick and Bernes states the way children may sometimes get misdiagnosed and their symptoms which can be signs of many other childhood disorders is misunderstood.
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However, a child may experience symptoms of other disorders such as conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional disorder and anxiety disorders. The symptoms can be so much at a time that it can overlap which then gives doctors a challenge to pin point to then make the right diagnosis. If the child is misdiagnosed instead of making them better, it will make the disorder much worst. To add on adults and children shares a different behavioral pattern that will eventually lead up to the bipolar disorder diagnosis. It was found that using adult criteria may result in misdiagnosis when used on children because a child will have a wide range of different symptoms. Finally, it is very important for school counselors who are working with children with a disorder or think the child is developing the disorder to know. It is very important to pay attention to the given signs and to have the child assessed by a child psychiatrist or psychologist for more and better testing. Therefore, this article is useful for parents and school counselors to be aware of the mistakes that can possibly be made, ways to pin point symptoms in a child and most importantly the steps on what can be done for the child to become successful with controlling their bipolar disorder.
Childhood Bipolar Disorder: A Difficult Diagnosis. Beyond Behavior, 23(1), 30-37. The main ideas expressed in this article is to explain how children with disorders are overlooked. It Is usually the children that a teacher or adult will least expect that are suffering from emotional and mental conflicts. Signs aren’t shown all the time because it can be the child that is quiet and behaves very well in the classroom, and because of that they don’t stand out to their teachers and other adults so that results in the incapability of them receiving supportive services. It is stated that about eighty percent of children who is bipolar are undiagnosed for up to ten years before receiving the right treatment. Furthermore, it can be a challenge for children and adolescents to manage school and relationship life. They sometimes turn to drugs and alcohol. Drug and alcohol abuse are between 40-50 percent while it can possibly be higher. Drug and alcohol use may seem to the abuser as fixing how they are feeling but not realizing that its only making it harder for them to control their disorder and higher the risk of suicide. Lastly the role that a parent and teacher play in a child or adolescent life who is dealing with bipolar disorder is important because them having guidance and support can go a long way.
Medicine in the Classroom: A Review of Psychiatric Medications for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders. Beyond Behavior, 17(1), 14-20. The main idea expressed is the focus on the type of medication that is used on children who needs it and the role as a teacher the things to know. Almost a quarter of students who has been able to see a school psychologist as a result ends up taking psychiatric medications. It is said that about sixty-five percent of these students take about one or even several different prescriptions daily. Because going to school is part of a daily routine it is important for teachers to be aware of their students who needs to take any form of medication whether their taking it at home or in school the teacher must know that these medications may come with a side effect that the child may not be able to control. Teachers support is very much needed and is important because they are the ones who is there to teach the child different ways to deal with their emotions not to get rid of it but ways to limit it. The article states the many types of different psychiatric medications and their effects, some such as mood-corrective which damps the mood when it comes to depression, anxiety or even both. Antipsychotic is used when a child is experiencing hallucination, detachment from reality and delusion. anticonvulsant medication deals with preventing seizures from reaching the brain. Finally because teachers play such an important role in a child life its stated that the teacher must know their students even though their full medical information isn’t shared it is good to be aware of the type of medication the student is taking and the effects that comes with it, it’s okay to know what the child is dealing with because you then will know what goals needed to be set to help the child in case of any guidance.
The Role of Father Participation in the Treatment of Childhood Mood Disorders. Family Relations, 51(3), 230-237. The focus of this article was to compare how a child or adolescent family can either have a positive or negative impact on their life and health. It states that an adolescent who is depressed experience family dysfunction and if the family is experiencing conflict then they most likely will be less supportive to the person who needs it the most, unaware that it effects the child or adolescent more. Evidence states that having a poor parental relationship is putting an actual risk of the child developing psychopathology. Mentioned in the article is when focusing on parents’ characteristics studies focus more on the mother than the father because they believe that children does not have frequent contact with their father and are most likely not willing to participate in research and therapy studies. Meanwhile other studies claim that fathers who do participate it’s because their work schedule and the location is not interfering. To conclude because the focus is mainly more on mothers and what they do fathers are left out and don’t know much, those who actually find time to participate in programs it shows that they have very few understanding about their child condition, the symptoms that follows and the knowledge about the mood disorder, compared to what the mothers know . On the bright side when they do obtain the information, they take it in well and gain a greater understanding and awareness.
Impact of School-Based Health Centers on Students with Mental Health Problems. Public Health Reports (1974-), 123(6), 768-780. The initial point of this article is to focus on school-based help for students. It’s said that children who are part of a low-income family or family that is on welfare are on the higher scale of having mental health problems such as emotional disorder, hyperactivity conduct disorder and somatization. Children who are at a disadvantage may not be able to obtain any health services that will help with their mental illness, gain help to recover from substance abuse or just for a checkup to prevent any future health problems. The article states that about fifteen thousand children who are suffering from mental disorders were incarcerated. The school-based health centers (SBHCs) provides health care for students who can’t or don’t know how to obtain health care from anywhere else. They have gained financial help from the federal government, Medicaid, other health insurers and foundations just so they can reduce any hard access to health care for the youth. SBHCs performs a study on how well children who is part of the program is doing the type of mental disorders they are suffering from and ways for it to be treated. With this more health problems are being treated and fewer disadvantaged students are left out.
Students Identified as Seriously Emotionally Disturbed in School-Based Day Treatment: Cognitive, Psychiatric, and Special Education Characteristics. Behavioral Disorders, 20(4), 238-252. The main purpose of this article is to focus on a study which analyzes students that are involved in a school-based day treatment program, this program is intended to clarify the problem the student population, when the problem was diagnosed, after the diagnosis how did it change as time went on and the type of different methods used. The program is funded through school and those who are a part of the program do receive mental health treatment. To be a part of this program the student will have to be considered as seriously emotionally disturbed and that decision is made by the school or the district team whom is responsible for the individualized education plan. To be eligible for mental health services that decision is made by someone who works for the department of mental health. In some countries some students live in group foster homes or residential homes while going to school, classrooms were designed as elementary classrooms while others were placed in segregated sites and some located on regular school campuses. To conclude the article wants to express the importance of having a systematic system that will focus on early detection of mental health issues.
Bardick, A., & Bernes, K. (2005).
Sutton, K. (2013).
Schoenfeld, N., & Konopasek, D. (2007).
Schock, A., Gavazzi, S., Fristad, M., & Goldberg-Arnold, J. (2002).
Guo, J., Wade, T., & Keller, K. (2008).
Duncan, B., Forness, S., & Hartsough, C. (1995).
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