Bipolar Disorder as a Possibly Treatable Illness
Bipolar disorder is known as a possibly treatable psychiatric illness that has substantial humanity and high social and economic impact (Swann, A. C. (2006).Bipolar disorder is a common, complex, and regular severe mental health condition with progressive social and cognitive function disturbances and comorbid medical problems. Bipolar disorder is a regular chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It touches more than 1% of the world’s population regardless of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the key causes of disability between young people( J Alonso, M Petukhova, G Vilagut, et al.(2011), leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate finding of bipolar disorder is hard in medical practice since onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression.
The trademark characteristic of bipolar disorder is the propensity to swing between the two contrasting ‘poles’ of elevated mood and depression, with a return to largely usual functioning in between these episodes. The periods of elevated mood are termed mania or hypomania, these share common characteristic symptoms. patients who have experienced an episode of mania are diagnosed as having bipolar I disorder, whereas those with only hypomanic episodes are said to have bipolar II disorder. For most patients with bipolar disorder, more of their lives are spent in depressed mood than in periods of elevation, even for those with bipolar i disorder. furthermore, the illness usually first presents with a depressive episode, meaning that some young people with depressive episodes may go on to have hypo/manic episodes in the future. It is critical that the depressive episodes of bipolar disorder are recognised early and treated vigorously, as most suicides occur during depressive episodes.one aspect of refining credit of bipolar depressive episodes has been instructive if there are symptoms more commonly observed in bipolar than unipolar depression. It appeared that the diagnosis was being made in many people with transient mood instability. the formal interviews demonstrated that many of these patients had other conditions such as borderline personality disorder, unipolar depression and impulse control disorders.
bipolar I disorder is considered to be approximately equally common in men and women, whereas bipolar II disorder may be more common in women than in men (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Three main explanations may account for this difference. The first clarification is linked to the fact that we included only patients who were hospitalised. It has been previously stated that women may experience a significantly superior number of hospitalisations for mania equated with men (Hendrick et al., 2000). This finding was believed to replicate a superior propensity for women to seek and obtain treatment (Mechanic, 1986). family members may be more expected to bring ill female relatives rather than ill male relatives to mental health facilities. This difference may be due to the different outlooks of normative behaviours conferring to gender and/or, as it was the case in the current study, to the higher likelihood for women to live with their families. The second reason is that the high comorbidity rate of alcohol and drug use in men may have led to a psychiatric admission diagnosis of constituent misuse rather than mania (Hendrick et al., 2000). Finally, as the prevalence of mixed mania is higher in women than in men, women are more likely to be hospitalised to prevent the risk of suicide associated with mixed pictures (Hantouche et al., 2006).
Dealing of bipolar disorder predictably emphases on solemn stabilisation, in which the aim is to bring patients with mania or depression to a symptomatic recovery with euthymic (stable) mood; and on maintenance, in which the goals are weakening prevention, decrease of subthreshold symptoms, and better-quality social and work-related functioning. Treatment of both stages of the illness can be multifaceted, because the same treatments that improve depression can cause mania, hypomania, or rapid cycling (defined as four or more episodes in 12 months), and the treatments that reduce mania might reason rebound depressive episodes.