Different Types of Viruses and Zika Virus
Different types of viruses are seen in the world but the biggest concern in medical science is zika virus. It belongs to the genus Flavivirus of family Flaviviridae. Though it was first identified in 1947 in rhesus monkey in the forest known as zika of Uganda and named accordingly, is a single stranded RNA arbovirus. Since then, it has become a major problem in the medical science and various cases are getting updated in the different parts of the world likely from Africa, parts of Asia and also to the America.( )
In the case study of Miami beach, the 2016 outbreak of florida confirms 256 cases of the virus of which the maximum count of the Miami with 241 infections. As the spread of the virus is by the bite of the mosquito mainly by the Aedes aegypti as after the testing of 24351 mosquitoes which are collected from June to November 2016, 99.8% were found to positive for the zika virus. The spread is mainly in the three areas i.e. Wynwood , Miami beach and little river.
Symptoms for zika virus can be seen after 2 to 7 days of exposure which can be such as headache, fever, anthralgia, anorexia, edema, conjunctivitis and the appearance of rashes on the skin. These symptoms can lead to many of the diseases but the major ones are microcephaly and Guillian-Barre syndrome. The transmission of the virus is through vector or non-vector way such as by the bite of the female Aedes mosquito, sexually as the cases occurred in the Texas,USA and by blood transfusion which also showed up an outbreak in French Polynesia .The spread is also from mother to the baby as one Microcephaly is the disease occur to the new born children when the mothers are suffering with zika virus infection. The disease in which the baby was born with small head or there will be no more growth after birth and the patient also shows the convulsions.
The diseases are prevented by the common ways such as preventing oneself from the mosquitoes bite, wearing clothes as much as required to cover the body and also the use of the nets and window screen to avoid the mosquitoes and also by the use of the repellents such as DEET(diethyltoluamide). sexually active people should take all neccessary steps to have the safe sex as the virus is also transmitted from one person to the other. So, contraceptives should be used to have safe sex. The pregnant women should avoid visiting the place where there is spread of virus and also avoid the sex during the pregnancy period.
According to the different ethical theories, study according to UTILITARIANISM, aerial spraying of pesticide against the mosquitoes is ethical because it was for the benefit of the whole society rather than the perspective of the single individual. It also shows the results in the positive way as the numbers for the infected person decreased.
Study according to the KANTANISM, aerial pesticide spraying is unethical because the action of spraying is performed by the government by their own without the will of the people of the community as they have the right to take decisions about the need of spraying or not and the officials must have to support them.
Study according to the COMMUNITARIANISM, aerial spraying of pesticide is ethical because it was for the welfare of the community and doing the greatest benefit for the community by saving them from the threat of zika virus.
Based on the theories of the public health ethics I found it is ethical for officials in Miami-Dade county, florida to conduct aerial spraying with naled to protect against zika virus because the action taken by the officials is for the welfare of the community as the number of cases had been reduced after the implementation opf the action taken.