Influence of Artificial Intelligence on People
In today’s society, there has been a vast amount of improvement that has been done with artificial intelligence and its conjunction with technology. As a result, a concern has risen as to whether this benefits or harms the way society functions. Research has also proven that later generations are more prone to use A.I due to the increased influence of technology. As more information is inquired, the effects of society becoming dependent on artificial intelligence becomes more apparent. Adding on to the previous idea, we can discover, not only why the generations are all influenced differently, but how the technology has been developed to change the way humans interact amongst each other and with other devices as well. Furthermore, once the research has established why society is affected, the next thing to do is to attest the idea of how this technology can bring us together and introduce new ways to exercise daily tasks.
Although the Artificial Intelligence we know today is more advanced, it has been around for a while now. As the author states, “Alan Turing, the brilliant British mathematician and codebreaker. Turing played a key role in developing the symbolic computation that is central to modern efforts at artificial intelligence. In 1936 he devised a hypothetical logic machine that consists of an endless piece of paper divided into squares, where each square is either blank or marked” (Goldberg, 1994). The author gives a sense of how the first AI worked, as it is not the same technology we know today. Considering this was the first iteration developed by a man named Turing. He was also the first to show this technology in action, demonstrating its ability to solve any logic-based algorithm it was given. However, the Term Artificial Intelligence was coined until after in 1956, when John McCarthy had proposed the idea of a computer language being able to solve a multitude of different mathematical equations. To further the understanding of what A.I is, many researchers have decided to compare the similarities between itself and the human minds, or the consciousness to be exact. The author also states, “It is speculative at best to suppose that we will, in fact, see developments in artificial intelligence that will alter our view that human consciousness is unique, and even more speculation is necessary to suggest that these developments will alter our legal standard for human life” (Goldberg, 1994). By delving into this quotation, we can understand that with the current technology we have available, it will not be enough to possess a human-esque mindset. With this information, we can assume that AI does not, yet, possess the potential to replace human to human interaction especially in places such as the workplace. This does not mean that AI cannot improve as the technology has just recently gained a lot of public popularity.
Machine learning has been a crucial part to the A.I we have today, so they can be more accustomed to the user and give better fit examples when asked. As quoted by the author: In principle, the best service by humans will be duplicated and will be better than human in terms of performance. As a result, the corporation will be managed and operated by a small number of people and numerous AIs. Human roles are more sophisticated, such as teaching to AI, criticizing, creating new services. A society that has reached such a state can be schematized as shown in Fig. 3 , and this is called AI society in this paper. (Toyoaki, 2014) As explained, one of the best ways an A.I develops its ability to learn from multiple humans at once. This can lead to an efficient experience due to the technology being able to adapt to multiple different types of personalities, especially since not everyone works on a similar level. With this technology it has the potential to learn much faster and be extremely accurate when it come to recreating the behavior, which may be an issue due to the fact that people would rather interact with a machine that has human like traits than talk to an actual person. An example of this might be the answering machine being able, to not only understand and speak to you, but rather remembering your specific voice and even number at times, so it keeps a record of who you are, so next time it can address the problem faster should you ever have the same problem. One of the main issues presented was a lack of communication. Communication is one of many key factors for a society to function, and as a result it leads to a better development as we progress along with A.I and its subset of features. However, when we are too reliant on the technology to communicate for us, we lose certain skills. As the author states, “On the other hand, another trend that brought the rise of information and communication technology is the development of digital network technology originating from Arpanet. Digital network technology is a very low-cost multimedia: 1: 1 communication based on telephone, 1: 1 based communication represented by telephone, 1:1 many communication by mass media many large-scale real-time information sharing and sharing enabled.” (Toyoaki, 2014).
Although one may argue that the benefits outweigh the negatives, we start to develop a dependency on talking through a device versus face to face as it is not only convenient but cuts down on the human emotion as well. Whilst communication over the internet has been an amazing feat, using it too much can lead to issues when it comes to face to face discussions. Although communication over a telecommunications device may be faster, it is noted that you are less likely to understand a person’s true emotion, especially when you cannot see the other person’s face, which can be a serious problem when discussing emotion based topics. Another issue brought about by society was that there was a belief of computers will eventually take over the world. However, through extensive research it has been proven that it will not happen, simply since computers are not being developed to reach the levels of human cognizance. As the author states, “Since this represents the performance of the best supercomputer in the world, one may add a few years to account for the delay that may occur before that level of computing power becomes available for doing experimental work in artificial intelligence. The exact numbers do not matter much here. The point is that human-level computing power has not been reached yet, but almost certainly will be attained well before 2050” (Bostrom, 2003). According to Bostrom, it is shown that even a super computer has yet to match the intelligence of a human, let alone take over a human’s duties.
Although it may be attainable before 2050, we also need to take into account that super computers might be able to process things much faster and diffidently than that of a human, but it still leaves room to wonder when the PC will harness such power, and if it’s even possible. However, Bostrom suggests that, “An artificial intelligence is based on software, and it can therefore be copied as easily as any other computer program. Apart from hardware requirements, the marginal cost of creating an additional artificial intelligence after you have built the first one is close to zero. Artificial minds could therefore quickly come to exist in great numbers, amplifying the impact of the initial breakthrough.”. As stated before, since software is so easily accessible and needs very minimal requirements to operate, it’s possible that Alight be accessible everywhere. This can be a bad thing, since many companies can use the A.I to replace humans with the use existing hardware. With a high chance of that happening, companies, all over the world for years, have been considering the costs of the performance of the A.I making less mistakes than humans. While many debate as to why machines will replace humans in the business world, some may also argue that the A.I machinery and humans can co-exist which can greatly increase efficiency, all while being not too dependent on the technology itself, since they are still human driven. As the author states, “For Mercedes-Benz executives, inflexible processes presented a growing challenge.
Increasingly, the company’s most profitable customers had been demanding individualized S-class sedans, but the automaker’s assembly systems could not deliver the customization people wanted. Traditionally, car manufacturing has been a rigid process with automated steps executed by “dumb” robots. To improve flexibility, Mercedes replaced some of those robots with AI-enabled cobots and redesigned its processes around human-machine collaborations” (Wilson, 2009). One of the examples given by Wilson was in the car maker Mercedes-Benzes factory, where the old machines were replaced by smarter and more efficient A.I bots. The bots work well with humans, as people not only perform maintenance the machinery but to work alongside them to assemble the car. This is, of course, a better situation for both the company and for the workers, as more jobs are created, efficiency is improved and many of the risks associated with heavy machinery are eliminated. Machines assisting humans is only the beginning, as more companies such as HSBC incorporate the technology, which can make our lives easier. As the author states, “One such operation is the detection of credit-card fraud. Companies have just seconds to determine whether they should approve a given transaction. If it’s fraudulent, they will most likely have to eat that loss. But if they deny a legitimate transaction, they lose the fee from that purchase and anger the customer. Like most major banks, HSBC has developed an AI-based solution that improves the speed and accuracy of fraud detection” (Bostrom, 2009).
This technology can be extremely beneficial, as it helps alert people much faster than a human could. It can scans the databases, it can catch any suspicious activity and alerts the agent, which in turn alerts you of fraudulent activity in your account. This is another one of the many examples of when an A.I makes the task at hand much easier for the people, cutting out any unnecessary work so we can focus on one specific task while the software handles the rest. Of course, another big influence, as stated before, is within the automotive industry. Since we had a look at the A.I that helps build the cars, we can also see that the cars being built have special software themselves. As stated by the author, “if the automated car actually sees the pedestrians in the crosswalk. But at this early stage in the evolution of AI, these machines do not always behave as expected. New technologies are being integrated into our lives before we can be sure that they’re foolproof, and that fact raises important moral questions about responsibility and risk” (Mind Edge, 2018).
This quote describes one of the current issues with the cars, which in day and age are deemed “driverless”. This is an issue because the A.I has not been perfected yet in terms of response time and reliability. This can lead to issues when people use technology, as it can be used in ways that it should not be used. “Given the wide range of considerations that everyday people take into account when reaching moral judgments, how can a machine be programmed to act in ways that the average person would always see as moral? In cases where moral intuitions diverge, what would it mean to program a robot to be ethical? Which ethical code should it follow?” (Mind Edge, 2018) These are the questions society have been asking, especially people that have been skeptical of the technology taking over too many daily tasks. People that dislike the technology believe that the software cannot make moral decisions, however what they do not understand is that the A.I will make whatever decision it was programmed to do by the human in a much faster response time than a human could. Of course reliability is not one hundred percent, however the recent development of the software has been at a steady rate, and with companies understanding the large amount of users they will for sure continue to support and develop this technology.
In conclusion, we have developed a better understanding of how A.I effects society. This has been done by going over the negative connotations around the software and they have not only been debunked, but also have been shown to have more positive outcomes. The examples, such as the Mercedes-Benz, are manufacturing plant incorporating A.I based machinery to help aide the workers instead of replacing them. Considering the effect it has this far on our lives, it will not take over, as many researchers have suggested. This is simply due to the fact that developers are focusing on A.I that works alongside humans, instead of taking over a humans task entirely like the HSBC example given, where the software scans for fraud and alerts the call center which alerts you. Last but not least, taking into consideration all of the events, the statement that A.I has a positive effect on society will continue to develop as time goes on due to the need for the software and the beneficiaries it provides.