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DNA, the fundamental blueprint of life, has revolutionized our understanding of genetics. By studying DNA, scientists can trace ancestry, understand genetic disorders, and even explore the evolution of species. The intricacies of genetics, from how genes express traits to the potential of genetic engineering, continue to be at the forefront of scientific discovery and ethical debates. On PapersOwl, there’s also a selection of free essay templates associated with Biotechnology topic.
The hereditary molecule that is tasked with carrying genetic instructions that are used in all living things in development, growth, reproduction and functioning is referred to as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA molecules consist of two strands which are bipolar and are mostly coiled near to one another to form a spiral. This strands are referred to as polynucleotides simply because they are made of small units known as nucleotides.
The information of the DNA is stored in this nucleotides. This nucleotides are made of guanine, thymine, cytosine and adenine which are chemical bases, and they are usually denoted with letters G, T, C, and A respectively. In addition to the four chemical bases, the nucleotide has a sugar and a phosphate group. According to the base pairing rules, the two separate polynucleotides are bound together (A pairs T and C pairs G).
How it works
Biological information is stored in DNA” its backbone is resistant to cleavage. The two strands store the same biological message, if the strands happen to separate the information in the strands is replicated. The double strands of DNA run in the opposite direction of one another.
Hence they are not parallel. In every sugar, one of the nucleobases types (A, T, G, and C) is attached. The sequence of this nucleobases, which is embedded in the backbone of the DNA, encrypts the biological information. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is usually created by DNA strands in a process referred to as transcription, and the DNA strands act as the templates for this process.
Through the process of translation, the RNA strands using the genetic code create the amino acid within proteins sequence. (Glover, David, et al, 178)Chromosomes are structures into which DNA has been incorporated. During cell division, through the process DNA replication the chromosomes are duplicated, hence every cell is provided with chromosomes that are a complete set. Eukaryotic organisms which include fungi, animals and plants, use their cell nucleus is used to store most of their DNA and some of the DNA in organelles for example chloroplasts and mitochondria.
Whereas in bacteria and archaea (prokaryotes) use the cytoplasm to store their DNA. Histones are an example of proteins that structure and mold the DNA in eukaryotic chromosomes, this helps in controlling the parts that can be transcribed of the DNA, hence making the DNA and other proteins to interact smoothly.Classification of nucleobasesThe nucleobases in a DNA strand have to major groups. We have the purines, they include adenine denoted by (A) and guanine denoted by (G). The cytosine(C) and thymine (T) make up another group called pyrimidines.
Uracil is a pyrimidine nucleobase that RNA takes the place of thymine, the lack of methyl group on its ring, it makes it different from thymine.The DNA PropertiesNucleotides are units that make DNA and are repetitive hence causing a long polymer. Its dynamic along its length, hence making it possible to coil into loops and various shapes too. DNA in all species is comprised of paired chains that are brought together by hydrogen bonds. These chains join together around the same axis. It exists as molecules held tightly together in pairs rather than as a single molecule.
The strands interlace to form a double helix. Nucleotides are made of segments and nucleobase, the backbone is used to hold the chain together, and the nucleobase is used interact with another strand in the DNA in the double helix. A sugar that is linked to nucleobase is referred to as a nucleoside. And if a sugar that is combined with one or more phosphate groups is linked to a nucleobase then we have a nucleotide. While a polymer composed of multiple connected nucleotides is referred to as a polynucleotide. Alternating residuals of nucleotides and sugar make up the backbone of the strand of the DNA.
The sugar is a two deoxyribose that is a pentose sugar, phosphate groups join these sugars hence forming phosphodiester bonds. With these asymmetric bonds, it means that the DNA has a strand direction. The DNA strand is made stable by two units that is hydrogen bonds, which are used to bond nucleotides, the other is base stacking that is used for the nucleobases. The bases that are found in the DNA strand include ” Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine, if these bases attached to a sugar-phosphate create a nucleotide. (Silverstein, Virginia, Laura, 269)
(Dacascos, Jurgen, William, 297)DamageMutagens cause damage to DNA” these mutagens are ” oxidizing agents, alkylating agents and high electromagnetic radiations. Every mutagen creates a different type of DNA damage, for instance, electromagnetic radiation produces thymine dimers that form cross-links between pyrimidine, oxidants like hydrogen peroxide cause damages including base modifications, mostly of guanosine and breaks of double strands.
Glover, David M, David Dugan, Jeff Goldblum, James D. Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, and Peter Pauling. Dna. The secret of life, Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences, 2008.
Silverstein, Alvin, Virginia B. Silverstein, and Laura S. Nunn.? Dna. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2009.
Dacascos, Mark, Jurgen Prochnow, and William Mesa.? Dna. La Crosse, WI: Platinum Disc Corporation, 2005.
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