Mitosis: Genetics Analysis & Principle

Introduction

Mitosis is a process of nucleic division in animal or eukaryotic cells that occurs when a parent cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells. Without mitosis there wouldn’t be a you or a me. Because during the cell division, mitosis, specifically separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus. While mitosis is taking place, there is no cell growth and all of the cellular energy is focused on cell division.

The cell division processsd of mitosis is divided into five stages known as prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. According nto the Nature website, during prophase, the replicated pairs of chromosomes condense and compact themselves. The pairs of chromosomes that have been freplicated are called sister chromatids, and they remain joined at af central point called the centromere. A large structure called the mitotic spindle also forms from long proteins called microtubules on each side, or pole, of the cell. During anaphase, the sister chromatids are separated simultaneously at their centromeres. The separated chromosomes are then pulled by the spindle to opposite poles of the cell. Anaphase ensures that each daughter cell receives an identical set of chromosomes. Finally, duringd telophase, a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomess to separate the dnuclear DNA from the cytoplasm. The fchromosomes begin to uncoil, which makes them diffuse and less compact. Along swith telophase, the cell undergoes a separate process called cytokinesis that divides the cytoplasm of the parental cell into two daughter cells.

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Methods and Materials

The materials that were needed and used in this experiment were a slide containing the onion root cell and a microscope that magnify’s up to 40X. For the first step we had to place and adjust the slide in the miscroscope, and focus it to the visible point for the indentification. We then observed the different stage that were shown in the slide and recorded the data. We also took photos to add more of a foundation to our claims.

Results

In the photo that my lab group was able to recover from the microscope we observed mostly all the mitosis stages in the onion root cell. There were multiple anaphase and telophase stages shown with addition to some prophase and some metaphase. From this, we were able to determine that the onion root slide that we had was undergoing the process of mitosis. (See Photo Below)

Discussion

In this lab, the objective was to observe and understand the process of mitosis, which is the process of nucleic division in animal or eukaryotic cells that occurs when a parent cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells. During prophase, the replicated pairs of chromosomes condense and compact themselves. During anaphase, the sister chromatids are separated simultaneously at their centromeres. During telophase, a nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomess to separate the snuclear DNA from the cytoplasm In this case, the cell happened to be an onion root tip cell. Why do we observe the root tips of the onions? This is because in the root tips there were actively divided. The onions bulbs supported by tripod of toothpicks ins beaker of water. As a conclusion in the root tips cell that I observed are all active divided because of the mitotic percentage of each cells are more than 0.05%. We also able tos distinguish each stage in mitosis process (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase).

References

Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, www.nature.com/scitable/definition/mitosis-cell-division-47.

Eldra P. Solomon, Linda R. Berg, Diana W.Martin. (2005). Biology. Third Edition: Thomson Brooks/Cole.

Brooker, R. J. (2009). Genetics Analysis & Principle. Third edition: Mc Graw Hill international edition.

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