Alcohol Life-Long Commitment
Information Research: Why do the United States and Scotland have different drinking ages through the social impacts, perception impairment, and mental effects? The significance of lowering the legal drinking age is the impact it can have on political institutions in the United States and Scotland. Adolescents benefit because of a reduction in potential to commit crimes. Teenagers misjudge emotions and take advantage of a feeling. Young adults are mentally impacted because the alcohol destroys the brain stem during its prime development.
The significance of lowering the legal drinking age is the impact it can have on political institutions in the United States (USA) and Scotland. The legal drinking age is important because alcohol abuse causes accidents.
How it works
Purpose of Investigation
The legal drinking age is controversial because alcohol has many side effects. Why do the United States and Scotland have different drinking ages through social impacts, perception impairment, and mental effects? For the purpose of this essay, adolescent drinking is the consumption of alcohol by anyone under the age of 21. Impact is something that has a strong effect on another. Perception impairment is one’s senses are misjudged. Mental effect is the consequence alcohol has on the brain. If the legal drinking age is lower, then more young adults will have fatal accidents. The two graphs show alcohol-attributable deaths by disease in the United States and Scotland.
Adolescent drinking is compared between the United States and Scotland because both countries have drinking laws. The legal drinking age is 21 in the United States, but eighteen in Scotland.
The limits of literature are the analysis of the resources used. Although four sources have an impact factor of 3 or higher, journals can be hard to understand because of the complex terminology; they are intended for advanced audiences. The story of a former teenage alcoholic is beneficial because it tells of a first-hand experience, yet there’s a possibility of showing bias. Multiple .org and .gov websites were used as well, which could show bias because they are government oriented.
Adolescent drinking will be examined through social impacts, perception impairment, and mental effects. Comparing the United States and Scotland, adolescent drinking is present at a legal drinking age of 21 and at an age of eighteen but they both still have drinking laws.
Initially, alcohol increases the potential to get in trouble with the law. Allison M. Borges, Carl W. Lejuez, and Julia W. Felton inform addiction psychologists gender, age, and self-reported anxiety are the leading factors of alcohol use among adolescents because teenagers believe certain symptoms may have negative consequences in their abstract. Alcohol impairs one’s life. Disclosing nervousness boosts alcohol use, but alcohol is a bad coping technique, Borges, Lejuez, and Felton affirm, “adolescents do report increases in positive alcohol use expectancies during this developmental period.”
Alcohol consumption decreases psychological issues. Tweeners have to worry about committing a crime which causes more anxiety. Many adolescents are going to drink, whether it is legal or not, so no point to put them in danger or under stress because they will not risk leaving the house.
Hence, the United States has greater depression/psychological issues. Alcohol can cause depression as it is, but drinking illegally can cause more stress. Teenagers in Scotland use alcohol as a coping technique and don’t have to worry about it being illegal. It can potentially cure depression.
Equally important, in their abstract, Frances M. Harding et.al. inform lawmakers underage drinking are enforced because it decreases unlawful activity. Strict drinking laws create safe environments. Educating legislators unlawful drinking creates dangerous situations, Harding et.al. maintain, “Underage drinking and its associated problems have profound negative consequences for underage drinkers themselves, their families, their communities, and society as a whole.”
Enforcing drinking laws keeps adolescents out of danger and their families from worrying. Middle schoolers drink in homes with friends and not leave the house they are at because they know the police are patrolling. Adolescents benefit because of a reduction in potential to commit crimes.
Therefore, the crime rate is much higher in the United States. Lowering the legal drinking age helps reduce the amount of minor in possession and minor in consumption tickets given. Scotland´s lower drinking age lowers the crime rate because teens do not have to leave the house when they do not have to hide it from their parents. This keeps young adults out of danger while drinking.
Furthermore, alcohol takes control over all senses after consuming. Because many teenagers differ in cognitive and neural functions from others, in her abstract, Linda P. Spear informs neuroscientists one reason is from alcohol consumption. Alcohol impairs one’s senses. Enlightening neurobiologists impairs one’s attention span, Spear asserts, “the consequences of alcohol use in human adolescents include alterations in attention, verbal learning, visuospatial processing and memory.” Underage liquor consumption causes teens to make poor decisions. Bad judgment is the source behind drunk driving accidents and fatalities. The lower the legal drinking age, the more lives put at risk when adolescents get behind the wheel.
As a result, alcohol causes many traffic fatalities because drivers’ senses are off. Because the age between driving and drinking is the United States is larger, there are fewer accidents. Scotland does not realize that the closer the legal driving age and drinking age are creates more accidents, Younger drivers are not as good or as smart as older drivers.
Additionally, people cannot detect emotion because of alcohol consumption, as Cynthian A. Honan et.al. inform emotional psychologists in their abstract. Intoxication decreases emotion perception ability. Teaching emotional doctors new ways are invented to prevent poor perception, Honan et.al. propose, “these results provide new insights into the limited capacity to monitor their emotion perception abilities, which may contribute to inappropriate social responding.” Not being able to detect one’s own emotions or emotions others have about them causes problems. Tweeners are drinking and cannot recognize others’ feelings about them can lead to sexual assault cases. Teenagers misjudge emotions and take advantage of a feeling.
To continue, alcohol impairs anyone’s judgment. The United States’ higher drinking age lowers the chances of potential sexual assault cases. Men and women both drink and think that they are interested in another person, but as soon as they are sober they regret it. In Scotland, this number is higher because at a younger age, adolescents are still figuring out their bodies.
Significantly, alcohol consumption lowers overall health conditions in young adults. Kevin D. Shield, Charles Parry, and Jurgen Rehm, in their abstract, inform behaviorists alcohol consumption is controversial because it can cause chronic diseases. Binge drinking causes death. Guiding psychiatrists more alcohol creates more death, Shield, Parry, and Rehm explain, “the average volume of alcohol consumed and consumption patterns have a causal impact on mortality.” Drinking alcohol is harmful for diseases depending on the amount consumed. Adolescent drinking increases the risk of certain diseases teenagers might get at a young or old age. A negative impact occurs because of lower medical conditions.
As a result, the United States has higher numbers in cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric diseases. Adolescents binge drink because it is illegal which causes these diseases. Scotland has more liver and pancreatic diseases. By the time young adults are in their twenties, they know how their body handles alcohol; so the diseases are less severe.
Most importantly, because high school is a scary time, Emily Fisher informs parents of teens that there is no way to protect their children. Teenagers feel the need for approval. Conveying adolescents tend to follow the actions of their peers, Fisher expresses, “those social pressures extend beyond the school sphere.” Alcohol is as addictive as any other drug and takes over peoples’ lives. Withdrawal takes the driver’s seat of someone and they are never the same. Young adults are mentally affected because the alcohol destroys the brain stem during its prime development.
To conclude, the United States tries to prevent alcohol abuse by having an older legal drinking age. This alcohol addiction could come later in life, leading to possible job losses or lack of motivation. Scotland does not realize that the more young adults drink, the better the chances of alcohol addiction. Alcohol addiction at a younger age leads to high school dropouts.
- Ahlström, Salme K. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, edited by Esa L. Esa L. Österberg, International Perspectives on Adolescent and Young Adult Drinking, Mar. 2006, pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh284 /258-268.htm. Accessed 20 Apr. 2019.
- Borges, Allison M., Carl W. Lejuez, and Julia W. Felton. “”Positive Alcohol Use Expectancies Moderate the Association Between Anxiety Sensitivity and Alcohol Use Across Adolescence.”” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 187, 1 June 2018, pp. 179-84, 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.02.029, www. sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0376871618301947. Accessed 25 Feb. 2019. Impact Factor: 3.322
- Clark, Brad. 30 Aug. 2017. , www.projectknow.com/7-crazy-binge-drinking- deaths/.Accessed 13 Apr. 2019.
- Editorial Board. Treatment First, edited by Editorial Board, Addiction Distance Treatment Services, Aug. 2018, www.treatmentfirst.org/teen-drinking. Accessed 23 Apr. 2019.
- Fisher, Emily. “”Teen Drinking, Alcoholism and Recovery: My Story Of Teen Alcoholism.”” Your Teen Magazine, edited by Emily Fisher, Your Teen Magazine, yourteenmag.com/health/drugs-alcohol/teenage-drinking- recovery. Accessed 19 Apr. 2019.
- Harding, Frances M., Ralph W. Hingson, Michael Klitzner, James F Mosher, Jorielle Brown, Robert M. Vincent, Elizabeth Dahl, and Carol L. Cannon. “”Underage Drinking.”” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 51, no. 4, 29 July 2016, pp.148-57,/ 10.1016/j.amepre. 2016.05.020,ww w.ajpmonline.org/article/S0749-3797(16)30192-1/ abstract. Accessed 27 Feb. 2019. Impact Factor: 4.527
- Honan, Cynthia A., Sarah Skromanis, Emma G. Johnson, and Matthew A Palmer.””Alcohol Intoxication Impairs Recognition of Fear and Sadness in Others and Metacognitive Awareness of Emotion Recognition Ability.”” Emotion, vol. 18, no. 6, Sept. 2018, pp. 842-54, 10.1037/emo0000404, psycnet.apa.org/search/display?id= 25f6bf03-f151-9b8a- f09e-e4490b 26d90b&recordId=1&tab=PA&page=1&display=25&sort=PublicationYearMSSort%20desc,AuthorSort%20asc&sr=1. Accessed 4 Mar. 2019. Impact Factor: 3.039
- Shield, Kevin D., Charles Parry, and Jurgen Rehm “”Chronic Diseases and Conditions Related to Alcohol Use.”” Alcohol Research Current Reviews, vol. 35, no. 2, Mar. 2014, pp. 155-71, doi:10.1.1.796.5198,www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3908707/. Accessed 6 Mar. 2019. Impact Factor: 4.97
- Spear, Linda P. “”Effects of Adolescent Alcohol Consumption on the Brain and Behaviour.”” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 19, 15 Feb. 2018, pp.197- 214, 10.1038/nrn2912. 2018.10 www.nature.com/ articles/nrn. Accessed 5 Mar. 2019. Impact Factor: 28.88
- Weber, Lee. “”Alcohol and Crime.”” Addiction Blog, edited by Lee Weber, American Addiction Centers Resource, 27 Feb. 2019, alcohol. addictionblog.org/alcohol-and-crime/. Accessed 19 Apr. 2019.