Federal government officials in the United States have noted there is a great racial disparity amongst Caucasian Americans, African Americans and other minority group entering or already in the juvenile justice system (karger stoesz 2018, p.365). Recovery from slavery is a massive task for most African Americans in America because they were considered non-citizens which further increased ethnic disparity (karger stoesz, 2018). The Native Americans and Latino Americans were not spared from segregation in addition the treaties serving the Native Americans were unequal to other minority groups practices (NAACP, 2018).
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After slavery was abolished, there were organizations set up whose goal was to control the acts of the freed slaves (NAACP, 2018). The Caucasian Americans were ruthless to the extent of breaking into jails and killing Negroes (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018). There were constant fights that existed between African Americans and Caucasians Americans as a result many were killed or injured during the interaction (NAACP, 2018). However, the important facts in history confirm that government officials and law enforcement officials did nothing to neutralize racism in the poor underprivileged community (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018). Racial bias in American society towards minority youth and adults has been a major setback moving towards the future (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018).
Congress amended an act in 1988, that would ensure that juvenile and adult offenders were confined in secure facilities according to their race (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). Furthermore, it was decided that this model would be followed by every state to maintain fairness among the citizens (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). However, each state was obligated to monitor the condition of the juvenile facilities and ensure that they were upgraded (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). In addition, the situation leading to an individual being locked up should follow a similar procedure without racial bias (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). In 2009, a study was conducted on several inmates in cells official results concluded African Americans incarceration is the highest of all (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).
Caucasian Americans and Latino Americans had a relatively equal number of individuals that were incarcerated (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). This has been contributed greatly by the fact that many African Americans walking along the streets are viewed as criminals and the police in many instances apprehend them (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). There have been tremendous efforts to fight discrimination and other related racial bias (Free, 2003). President Franklin D. Roosevelt, for instance, established a movement which banned discrimination based on race, color, religion, or national origin in the defense industry (Free, 2003). Studies have also reported that the Supreme Court overturned a decision allowing African Americans the right to attend different schools and enjoy equal opportunities (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).
The unanimous decision allowed schools to be integrated therefore every citizen had the right to attend whichever school they decided to attend (Weich& Angulo, 2000). It is quite unfortunate that many people in American society and some rouge police officers might perceive African Americans as criminals and apprehended them due to prejudice (Weich& Angulo, 2000). Furthermore, stringent measures should be taken into consideration to ensure that all the citizens feel secure and safe (NAACP, 2018). Some of the police officials should live in minority areas where they are stationed to get acquainted with their neighbors and other community leaders and residents, so they won’t perceive them as criminals (NAACP, 2018). Moreover, they should go through rigorous training to differentiate between criminal behavioral and law-abiding innocent civilians (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). This would help in the future ensuring equality among every American citizen (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).
American social policy and social programs need to stay consistent with the human developmental approach and the expansion of enriching human beings lives rather than if economic growth will ultimately lead, automatically, to the greater good for everyone wherever they live (Black & Yeschke 2014, p.21). Promoting racism and segregation based on color is bound to lead to stagnant economy (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). In American society blacks were driven to live in specific areas and were not allowed to interact with Caucasians who were living in wealthy communities (NAACP, 2018). Due to advancement in technology, it is expected that all the people embrace the change, but since the blacks lived on their own, it was hard for any type of advancement therefore they continue to struggle and most are still poor (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).There are many African Americans who are talented in certain areas and could increase their productivity if they are offered the same opportunities as white Americans(Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).
However, due to racism, these cultural groups were ignored along with their talents (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). These racist actions lowered many young adolescents and adult’s self-esteem which also affected their mental cognitive behavior patterns. Depression affects individuals differently and a person’s brain consists of three different functions the retrieval, encoding and storage each part must interact together daily (Black & Yeschke 2014, p.21). An adolescent or adult encountering a lot of stress could be experiencing encoding problems brought on by depression and low self-esteem (Black & Yeschke 2014). This behavior can lead to a person using drugs, alcohol and abusing prescription medication (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). Racial bias has impeded African Americans progress and influenced their behavior to start committing crimes from petty to more serious crimes therefore becoming familiar with the criminal justice system (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018).
In addition, the dejection, biasness and unfair treatment by the authorities would make them want to retaliate by becoming more reckless and violent towards other minority cultural groups (Free, 2003). Congress has attempted to change the judicial system by reducing minority cases due to racism and other means of exclusion by putting laws in place that are applicable to all the citizens researches has shown that bias still rampant in many states (free 2003). the studies carried out have verified the lack of documentation showing that racial bias (free 2003). Several studies conducted verified the lack of documentation showing that racial bias is legal (Free, 2004). However, many police officers exert excessive force when handling African Americans opposed to the way they interact with Caucasians it has been confirmed (Free, 2004).
Furthermore, they use derogatory language and abusive words during their interactions with minority groups (Free, 2004). Relationships between fellow police officers also influence their behavior and interactions with minority cultural groups (Free, 2003). An additional report, concerning the New York State Judicial Commission on Minorities, a panel of judges, attorneys, and law professors found that there are two systems at work in the court system in the State of New York one for whites, and a very different one for minorities and the poor (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018). The panel also found inequality, unfair treatment, and social injustice based on race (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018). The judicial system has failed in protecting its citizens by acting against those that are bias in one way or another (Karger, & Stoesz, 2018).
Although some law enforcement officers but not all of them because there are good police officers in society working to change the outlook. (Free, 2003). Therefore, not all police officers promote racism in poor communities (Free, 2003). Every law enforcement officer is expected to uphold law and order and not to influence people to commit more acts of delinquency (Free, 2003). Since a law was established that ensured that all the citizens could live together amicably, it is important to promote peace among the people and encourage them to work harder in their respective fields (Free, 2003).Throughout the years, many scholars have shown youths who commit crimes have been arrested and placed in facilities whereby they are expected to change their ways (Free, 2003).
In these facilities, they are treated differently depending on their color and race (Free, 2003). This is due to the slavery that the blacks were exposed to that continues to be enacted indirectly (NAACP, 2018). Even though the laws have been put in place that promote equality, the people who are expected to enhance the laws are unwilling to do so (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). In addition, it has been noted that many males are jailed as opposed to women (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012). Many young minority juveniles most notably blacks, experience the criminal justice system at higher rates than whites (Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).
An analysis was conducted concerning various prisons overtime, and witnesses have attested to experiencing harsher conditions from the police brutality than any other law enforcers(Gabbidon & Greene, 2012).According to Karger, & Stoesz, (2018), in 2014, 6% of all black males ages 30 to 39 were in prison, while 2% of Hispanic and 1% of white males in the same age group were in prison(Karger, & Stoesz, 2018). Statically out of 682 convicts that received a life sentence 48% consisted of African Americans 29% Hispanic Americans and 20% were Caucasian Americans (karger & stoesz, 2018). This implies regarding their total population in the nation that African American communities are greatly represented in the prison system (Karger, & Stoesz,2018). This proves that in the twentieth century it can be argued that racism and other forms of exclusion and segregation must be been done away with, there still exists cases of the same crimes committed against mankind (Free, 2003).
Researches have determined since slavery was abolished, there have been an effort by the government to reduce racism nation (Karger, & Stoesz,2018). However, in the United States and other nations many efforts have been futile concerning equality for various races living in society (Karger, & Stoesz,2018). African Americans travel to nations hoping to further their studies have experienced cases of racism on many occasions (Free, 2003). In addition, some learning institutions have been confronted because of racial policies placing African Americans and Caucasians in different quality hotels (Free, 2003). Furthermore, many young African American felmales and males are not allowed to display their talent in the various learning categories (karger &stoesz 2018) Furthermore racism is a factor that has contributed greatly to the failure of economic growth in many states thus should be dealt with to ensure that all areas progress moves forward in the future (Weich& Angulo 2000)
Black, I. S., & Yeschke, C. L. (2014). The art of investigative interviewing. Massachusetts, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Free, M. D. (2004). Racial issues in criminal justice: The case of African Americans. Monsey, NY: Criminal Justice Press.
Gabbidon, S. L., & Greene, H. T. (2012). Race and Crime (3rd Ed.). Thousand Oaks: SAG Publications, Inc.
Karger, H. K. & Stoesz, D. (2018). American social welfare policy: A pluralist approach (8th Ed). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon
NAACP. (2018). NAACP | Criminal Justice Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.naacp.org/criminal-justice-fact-sheet/
Weich, R. H., & Angulo, C. T. (2000). NCJRS Abstract – National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/Abstract.aspx?id=182442
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