The Criminal Justice System (CJS) is a set of legal and social organisations for enforcing the criminal’s law according to a defined set of rules and legislations. The biggest influence on the CJS has been the finding of reasons of certain behaviours, these are founded by physiological theories which gave a major benefit on providing a better understanding for criminologists. Eyewitness testimony refers to individuals providing evidence in a crime or accident that has occurred which they have witnessed.
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The reliability of an eyewitness to provide evidence in trial is a major factor towards the benefit of the courts concluding whether the defendant is guilty or not. Meta-analytic studies show a clear indication of cognitive behavioural and relapse prevention programmes are the most effective types of intervention for sexual offenders. According to the Ministry of Justice, Home Office and the Office for National Statistics, 2.5% of females and 0.4% of males had mentioned they had been a victim of sexual offence (including attempts) within the previous 12 months from January 2013. These sexual offences can range from the most violent types of sexual offences such as, rape and sexual assault, to other offences such as indecent exposure and unwanted grooming.
Some sexual offender treatments were included in cognitive behavioural programmes (Laws and Marshall 2003; Brown 2005) such as aversion therapy – this is designed to reduce aberrant sexual arousal and, in some cases, as with orgasmic or masturbatory reconditioning, which was there to increase a more appropriate sexual arousal. Each type of treatment used for sexual offenders would always be assessed for which they could help in the situation they are in, the principles that are being assessed are towards benefiting the sexual offender to what the type of intervention that is needed for them to improve themselves. This would include following these certain steps risk, need and responsivity that have shown repeatedly associated with effective interventions (Andrews et al. 1990b; Lipsey 1989, 1995). Within the UK it has been said that sex offender treatment is located within a more therapeutic, public health and/or mental health setting.
Cognitive-behavioural programmes often require offenders to engage actively, learn skills and assimilate ideas/messages etc, that way they are more expected to live a more employable life hat way they will be able to have a better understanding of how to live life in the non-offending community. Hormonal treatments are used within programmes to help sexual offenders, these are not usually used in isolation and issues such as the negative side effects and potential increased risk following termination mean that the use of this treatment is not likely to be widespread, although it could be particularly useful in some groups of offenders (Lösel and Schmucker, 2005).
Most programmes are set in place to help change the attitudes and thoughts towards the sexual behaviour and sexually aberrant behaviour, attitudes towards women and children and sexual entitlement, cognitive disorders (thoughts and attitudes encouraging sexual aberrant behaviour), offence cycles or offence chains; including thoughts behaviour leading to deviant behaviour, empathy, self-esteem and social skills.
In the 1980s, behavioural programmes continued to develop overtime, this then included in relapse prevention had then became an important type of programme for sex offenders, some programmes were designed to be centred on these principles (e.g. Marques et al. 2005).
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