Recommendation for the Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association HKASA

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Coaching style and Motivation are very important in national sport association.

CPD which can help qualified orienteering coaches maintain and improve knowledge. It also can build up confidence and credibility. In swimming , there are many competitions. In this case, If you are swimmers, most of them are willing to get prizes. The main point is achieving gold and you need focus on training and development. Efficient by reflecting on their learning and all value to the sport through their increased.

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Moreover, how to motivate the swimmers is also important. The coach has different style to coach different level of athletes. For example, coaching beginners and elite swimmers are totally use different coaching style. We can accord knowledge, training and experience

Motivation climate background

Most of the young swimmers are more prone lose their motivation and rely on extrinsic regulations facts in order to be motivated

Aspects have practical importance supportive attitude by coaches may meet athletes’ basic psychological and competition

Intrinsic motivation, which is also known as autonomous, self-determined motivation, occurs when an individual engages in an activity due to a genuine interest in the activity itself (Hodge & Lonsdale, 2011). In the context of sport, intrinsically motivated athletes enjoy the process of improving, which aligns with their goals and values (Donahue, 2006). Athletes who show high levels of intrinsic motivation tend to engage in their sport with increased passion and a high work ethic (Horn, Bloom, Berglund & Packard, 2011).

Extrinsic Motivation

In contrast to intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation occurs when an individual is engaging in an activity in order to obtain outcomes that are not self-determined, and these actions are experiences because of outside pressures (Hodge & Lonsdale, 2011). In sport, extrinsically motivated athletes seek to gain rewards instead of meeting their goals and aligning actions with

their values (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Athletes who show high levels of extrinsic motivation exhibit motivated behavior in sport only to satisfy external pressures, and in some cases to avoid punishment (Horn, Bloom, Berglund & Packard, 2011).

Foundation Phrase (young swimmers)

Young swimming who are encouraging to learn goal setting is to help in life not just only for sport. In swimming , learning to set clear targets, priorities and help improve their performance and confidence, and increase their motivation.

Being autonomy supportive coach is more suitable in young swimmers .It means that the individual takes into account their athletes’ perspective, engages with and acknowledges their athletes’ feelings, and provide athletes with pertinent information and opportunities for choice (Deci & Ryan, 1985).

The importance of SMART theory goal setting

For the long term goal is qualifying for Nationals in 2017, consider what they need to do each day, each week and each month to ensure they achieve the goal. In swimming, SMART goal setting is important as there are many different kinds of competitions such as D1,D2, Champ. These are different level of competitions with standard. “”Setting goals gives you long-term vision and short-term motivation,”” according to the article “”Personal Goal Setting”” published by

The first component is Specific. It means you should answer the six “”W”” question. For example, which competition? What is the main stroke ? How to train that I can achieve the goal? If you can answer the six “”W””, then you can train SMART. Is not just swimming everyday but I don’t know what I’m doing.

The second component is Measurable. It can help you judge whether or not you are on the right tract and figure out what can I do after I completed the smaller goals. Having measurable goals can help swimmers to build up their confidence to swim better and swim well in the competitions.

The third component is Attainable. Setting high goals is important , but the important things which is to set goals that swimmers can reach or not. The attainable goal can give swimmers opportunities to challenge and bring them closer to the achievement.

The forth component is Relevant. Every short term goal is a good way to achieve the higher gold step by step. In this part, the goal should be relevant and makes a commitment towards achieving and wants to achieve. The swimmers should have motivation to achieve the goal.

Last component is Time. Time frame helps the swimmers focus on the objectives on their minds. Putting deadline on the goal which can make it clear. The swimmers have motivation to do it and focus on training. They need to know that time that they swim. Coach can encourage them to keep going and give them confidence that they can do it.

Development phrase ( Elite )

In this level, Controlling coaching style is more suitable in Elite level. It provides no choices or rationales for their athletes, and although they do provide feedback, it is often negative (Mageau & Vallerand, 2003). The controlling coach also employs power-assertive techniques that pressure athletes to comply.

Athletes who feel that they are capable of achieving their goals and overcoming challenges are often driven to perform better.

Excelling allows people to gain an important sense of competence and build mastery in skills that are enjoyable and important to them.

Usually the same as any other swimming training, students are given programs, in order to build up their endurance level. In the start the program which they are given are easier, it is because they need to warm themselves up before the upcoming challenge. There is always a few faster and slower students, in each program the slower students might not be able finish. The coach could plan the same programs for the students but let those fall behind finish in a shorter durance than others. That way it could help them build the confidence that one day they can improve to keep up with others.


For more elite swimmer, as they have been trained for quite amount of time, their body constitution and mental quality are at a higher level than others. In order to maintain training for their higher performance level, the coach need to also have a regular meeting with individual swimmer for evaluation about how they react to training; how they want to improve and the goal they aim for. That way the coach could adjust training that are most suitable for them, which is a good way for the swimmers to improve.


Although coaches always plan the training ahead, in my experience sometimes they do ask for students opinion on what they want to focus on that day then the coach will formulate a set of program for that particular session. That way students can develop a strong level of confidence but also they will enjoy the period, plus persist in the sport for a long period of time. Besides, it will cause the students motivation of attending training, other than improving in their skills, it could decrease their negative attitude such as impatient and drop-out from the sport.


As a coach, we have the flexibility to adapt our own style depending on the needs of those we are coaching. Ponder the goals we want to set for the individuals in our team, and the team as a whole. The swimmers have motivation is one of the important things to achieve the goal and to be success . If they don’t have motivation that they can’t to achieve the goal and they don’t enjoy swimming. All in all, the good relationship between coach and athletes is also important.

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Recommendation for the Hong Kong Amateur Swimming Association HKASA. (2019, Jun 29). Retrieved from