Child Development in Poor Families
Poverty is a global problem that has always accompanied humanity. Nowadays, this phenomenon most often affects families with many children and its negative effects can be observed mostly with children. Lack of funds for satisfying basic living needs constitutes a threat to their health and proper development, is a cause of educational negligence and a reason for social alienation. Childhood in poverty often leads to the adoption of bad models and the replication of lifestyles of previous generations. It is the moral duty of society and the task of public authorities to support people and families in difficult financial circumstances. The state provides this support through the redistribution of the goods produced. Social and legal protection of the family is secured by a system of benefits compensating not only income but also social deficits.
On December 1942, government published a report entitled ” social insurance and allied services ” prepared by Sir William Beveridge, a valued economist and a respected expert. Developing a plan that will help solve the problems of poverty has become the main goal. Despite many oppositions to the report, the government considered it a breakthrough in the fight against poverty, while British society demanded that it be implemented in life as soon as possible . The aim of the report was, to provide a cradle-to-grave insurance system.
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One of the proposals was to pay weekly contributions to the state and in return the benefits were to be paid to retired, widowed, unemployed and disabled people. One of the main initiatives to reduce poverty among families and children was to introduce a child benefit, which was paid only to families with more than one child, after subsequent changes the allowance was paid to all children regardless of family income(The National Archives). Despite the government’s introduction of a wide range of benefits for families in a difficult financial situation, the increase in families with one parent was noted. Many of these parents were unable to take up work due to duties related to childcare, which is why they are forced to apply for social benefits, resulting in a child remaining in a difficult financial situation. In 1991, fundamental changes were introduced to the law in the care of children related to maintenance. After the breakup of the family, not many fathers kept paying for maintenance for their children despite the court’s arrangements. The new rules required higher amounts of maintenance and rigorous compliance with payment than before(Burgoyne, Millar 1994).
The government in social and economy policy takes into account to special features of the family who need support, both material and social. Special attention is given to families with more than one child or lone parents. Living conditions are the basic factor of proper functioning of the family. Satisfying basic needs gives a sense of security and creates opportunities to develop and focus on higher-level needs