Cellular to Cellular Communication

Mobile device carriers Sprint, Verizon, AT&T and T-Mobile are compliant with either Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) or Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) cellular networks (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Communication, Mobile Switching Centers, and the Base Switching Subsystem” and “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018).

Despite the differences in cellular networks the technology and organization of the cellular network is similar and conceptually the same. Cell phone towers receive data and voice services use radio frequencies on mobile base and switching centers to send and receive calls (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” and “Cellular Communications” 2018). The components comprised in the mobile phone communication process can be collectively referred to as a Radio Access Network (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018).
Devices used to be restricted to the network their associated service carrier signed a service agreement with (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018). Modern hybrid mobile devices such as the iPhone are compatible with both networks as they have two separate cellular radios for voice and data (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018).

Cellular to Cellular communication

Cellular system is division of geographical space into smaller region calls cells so radio frequency can be reused by cell towers to allow several people to perform services whether it is a phone call or text message at the same time. (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018,; D Mohankumar, nd; Cellular Communications, nd). Mobile service can be enhanced through cell splitting which divides cells further to meet the needs of heavily populated areas and remove rural regions (Cellular Communication, nd). Service contract and associated service activities such as subscribed activities and billing is managed by the network system (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018). Individuals subscribed to the GSM Network are identified by the International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) while CDMA subscribers can be tracked by Mobile Equipment Identity (MEIN) (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Mobile Technology Challenges for Investigators” 2018).

Data about the subscriber (billing address), the subscribed services, and location update last registered network are maintained at the HLR and used by the MSC to route calls and messages and generate usage records called Call Detail Records (University of Maryland University College in DFC 620 9041 Digital Forensics Technology and Practices, “Cellular Network Characteristics” 2018).

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