RECENT DEVELOPMENT in 5G TECHNOLOGY

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Abstract

The primary objective of this paper is study the recent developments in the field of 5G technology of mobile communication. This paper develops upon the previously published paper [1] written by Asvin Gohil, Hardik Modi and Shobhit K Patel, which was published at the 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Signal processing(ISSP). In addition to this, we also discuss the various success made in the field of 5G by the leading tech companies like Verizon, AT&T, Qualcomm etc. Qualcomm, a leading tech company has contributed much to the development of 5G technology. The main research work today in 5G technology is concerned with mobile communications. Today, the widely used 5G technologies are 802.11 WLAN and 802.16 WMAN and Wireless networks for digital communication. Majorly, we shall discuss the development of 5G technology over the preexisting 4G technology and the advantages and disadvantages of the new technology. The mobile customer has been given the major importance over any other consumer domain in 5G technology. 5G technology shall allow mobile phone users to enjoy a very high bandwidth. Upgrading from the existing 4G technology, the 5G technology has all the possible features that makes it the most powerful technology in the current scenario. 5G shall surpass the basic functionality of a mobile network to connect people together, It shall, in fact, be able to connect devices, homes, industries and maybe even cities together. So the scale on which the wireless network shall be working is massive. 5G technology shall transform the automotive and electricity industries. Main developments is in the IOT field and Vehicle-to-Vehicle communications in the automotive domain.

I. INTRODUCTION

It goes without saying that mobile and wireless networks have made remarkable development in the last few years, the outcome of which, is the new 5G technology. In a layman’s terms 5G refers to the 5th generation mobile network. It shall take a much larger role than the previous generations. The new technology shall surpass the current technology’s basic functionality of connecting users. In fact, various devices, homes, industries, hospitals and even cities can be connected through the wireless network(like the concept of smart homes and smart cities). So the normal wireless technology of connecting people shall expand into domains of massive Internet of Things. The branch of 5G that shall be dealing with the mobile communications is 5g NR(New radio) as proposed by 3GPP [11]. The first phase of 5G shall be deployed in March 2019(Release -15) and the second phase of deployment shall be in March 2020. In addition to all the above mentioned benefits, 5G shall bring Gbps peak download speeds, mega bandwidths, very low latencies and a uniform user experience, which shall change the mobile user experience dramatically.

II. Differences from 4G and challenges in Migration from 4G

In this section we shall discuss few key differences between 5G and 4g and the challenges faced in migration from 4g.

  1.  Compared to 4G, 5G is a unified platform that is more capable than 4G: We can see that while 4g’s main focus is delivering faster mobile service compared to its predecessor 3g network, 5G’s main focus is delivering an all round mobile broadband experience to support new services such as mission-critical communications and massive IoT.
  2. 5G uses spectrum better than 4g: 5G shall be able to use the wireless spectrum across a wide array of spectrum bands – from low bands below 1Ghz to mid bands 1-6Ghz to high bands(mm waves).
  3. 5G is faster than 4G : 5G is claimed to deliver super high speeds upto 20Gbps peak data rates and 100+ Mbps average data rates, which is quite higher than the current LTE technology.
  4. 5G shall support a 100x traffic capacity and network efficiency. E] 5G shall have lower latency than 4G: 5G has significantly lower latency to deliver more instantaneous, real time access.

Few challenges in migration from 4g:

  1. Multi mode user terminals:
    In the case of 4G technology the user’s handset has to overcome the design problems involved in connecting to various different wireless networks for a single terminal device. Such design issues can be solved using the software defined radio in 5G technology.
  2. Security: Provision should be made for designing a reconfigurable, adaptive and lightweight protection mechanism.
  3. Charging and Billing:
    Since it is difficult to accumulate, handle and process the consumer account information from many service providers, billing is difficult.
  4. Attacks on Application level :
    Software applications which shall offer new features shall also introduce new bugs.

III. 5G CONCEPTS

  • Physical/MAC layers
    The Physical and MAC layers consists of the OSI layer 1 and OSI layer 2, which has been shown in Fig. 1. This defines the new wireless technology. For these two layers the 5G mobile networks is likely to be based on an Open Wireless Architecture [8]. Open layer architecture is basically a network architecture where the single terminal device such as our user 5g handset can automatically connect to the nearby wireless local area networks(such as broadband WAN, Wi-Fi towers, Wireless ATM, Home WiFi etc) and have uninterrupted service. Also when the user moves to a new place or a new mobile area(such as highway, flight, driving etc) the network can automatically switch to the wireless mobile networks (GPRS, 5G, CDMA etc), thus ensuring high efficiency of network usage and enabling best data-rates.
  • Network layer
    This shall be the IP(Internet protocol) layer since there is no competition on this level. The IPv4 (form 4) is overall spread and it has a few issues, for example, restricted address space. These issues are explained in IPv6. Yet, mobility still remains an issue. In 5G technology, all the mobile networks shall use Mobile IP, and each mobile terminal shall be Foreign agent, keeping the Care of address mapping between its fixed IPv6 address and CoA address for current wireless network. Yet, a mobile phone can be attached to several wireless networks at the same time. Hence, it shall maintain different IP addresses for each of the radio interfaces. While each of these IP addresses will be CoA address for the FA in the phone, fixed IP shall be implemented by the phone manufacturers. Hence, the 5G mobile phone shall maintain virtual multi-wireless network environment. manufacturers. Hence, the 5G mobile phone shall maintain virtual multi-wireless network environment.
  • Open Transport Protocol (OTA) layer 
    Here, the mobile and wireless networks differ from wired networks regarding the transport layer. Generally, the assumption is that lost segments are due to network congestion in all TCP versions, whereas in wireless networks the loss may occur due to higher bit error ratio in the radio interface. Hence TCP modifications and adaptations are proposed for the mobile and wireless networks, which retransmit the lost or damaged TCP segments over the wireless links only. D. Application Layer The main requirement from applications layer is to provide intelligent QoS management over a variety of networks. The 5G phone shall provide a possibility for service quality testing and also storage of information in the database of mobile terminal. Qos parameters such as delay, jitter, losses, bandwidth, reliability etc shall be stored in the database in the 5G mobile phone. KEY FEATURES 1. 5G technology shall offer high resolution for the high end cell phone user and large bandwidth. 2. Advanced billing interfaces shall make it more appealing and effective. 3. Subscriber supervision tools for fast action shall be implemented. 4. Data rates in Gigabits shall be provided with over 65,000 connections [10]. 5. High quality of Services shall be provided. 6. Traffic statistics shall make the 5G technology more accurate. 7. 5G technology offers transporter class gateway with maximum consistency. 8. Faster and better solution provided to the user through remote management. 9. Remote diagnostics is also a new possibility. 10. Peak rates up to 20Gbps and average rate up to 100+ Mbps promised. 11. 5G technology shall also support VPNs(Virtual Private Networks). 12. The 5G technology has the potential to take out the existing delivery services out of business. 13. The market capture is estimated to be up to $12 trillion worth of goods and services. 14. A defining capability of 5G is also the design for forward compatibility—the ability to flexibly support future services that are unknown today.

IV. 5G ARCHITECTURE

The above figure explains the concept of 5G handset design. [1] describes how the 5G technology is used to accommodate the quality of Service and rate requirements set the new ondemand applications such as vehicular V2V communications, ultrafast IOT, wireless broadband access, MMS services, Digital video broadcasting etc.

V. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Various studies show theories in favor of the new 5G technologies. [6] states that 5G shall not only enhance he mobile broadband services used today but also expand mobile networks to support a variety of devices and services and also connect new industries with improved performance, efficiency and cost. 5G shall redefine a broad range of industries with connected services from retail to education, transportation, entertainment etc. Also economically, the 5G industry shall support a $12trillion industry by 2035, which is a quite big share of the market. [7] describes a few more advantage of the new technology like high resolution and bidirectional large bandwidth shaping, technology to gather all networks at the same platform, more efficiency and effectiveness etc. While it is important to discuss the advantages of the new technology we should not ignore the disadvantages that accompany the new technology. [11] suggest the benefits of low communication latency of the new technology which shall bring into reality multiplayer mobile gaming, self driving cars and factory robots etc. Few shortcomings – the fact that the technology is still under progress and research on its viability is still continuing. There have been claims by various tech companies but long term support for 5G network is yet to be implemented. The speed claimed is quite difficult to achieve. The current infrastructure is bot able to support the high speeds and bandwidth claimed by the tech companies. It shall take more time to upgrade the infrastructure. Another major issue is the incompatibility of the old devices to the new 5G technology. New devices have to be configured.

VI. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPES/PERSPECTIVES

In this paper we have majorly surveyed the recent development of 5G technology for mobile communication, the advantages and disadvantages of such a new technology and the challenges faced in migrating from the existing 4G network. The 5G technology, which has also been explained by the help of a mobile phone concept[8], is designed as an open platform on different layers, from the physical layer going up to the application layer. The proposed concept utilizes the Open Wireless Architecture described in [8]. The 5G terminals shall be having software defined radios and shall also be able to download error-control schemes from the internet. The major improvement is that the 5G terminals shall be able to access different wireless technologies at the same time and the terminal shall be able to combine the flows from the various technologies. Currently, the main work is in designing the modules that shall offer the best Operating System and lowest cost for a specified service using one or more than one wireless technology at the same time from the 5G mobile handset. As we see the development of wireless technology from starting from 1G, which delivered analog voice, and then 2G which introduced digital voice, upwards to 3G and 4G, which introduced LTE, we have arrived at the 5G – the fifth generation mobile network, which shall upgrade the mobile network beyond just connecting people. We see that the new 5G technology is available in the market at inexpensive rates, high peak expectations and much reliability than its foregoing technologies. 5G network technology will bring to light a novel age in mobile communication. The 5G mobiles will have access to different wireless technologies at the same time and the terminal should be able to merge different flows from different technologies. 5G technology offers high resolution for passionate mobile phone consumer. We can watch an HD TV channel in our mobile phones without any disturbance. The 5G mobile phones will be a tablet PC. Many mobile embedded technologies will also develop thanks to the new 5G technology. Also as per the claims made by Qualcomm, the new 5G devices shall also be capable of enhanced mobile broadband functions (namely handling multi-Gbps data rates, uniformity, extreme capacity, deep awareness etc), mission critical services(namely ultra low latency, high availability, high reliability, strong security etc) and massive internet of things(low cost infrastructure, deep coverage, ultra-low energy and high density). The applications of such services can be used on a wide range like wearables, smart homes, smart cities, automotive industry and healthcare etc. As mentioned in [6] the future prospects of 5G can be broadly classified into 3 major categories: 

  1. Enhanced Mobile Broadband: 5G shall not only make our smartphones better and snappier, but also shall give way to better experiences, such as Virtual reality(VR) and Augmented Reality(AR), with faster, more uniform data rates, lower latency, and lower cost-per-bit. 
  2. Mission-Critical Communications: With the advent of 5G, various critical operations such as remote control of critical infrastructure, vehicles, and medical procedures could be done by a handheld device. 
  3. Massive Internet of things: The concept of massive Internet of Things shall come true when 5G shall allow the multitude of embedded devices and sensors to be connected over the internet over a single platform to enhance the power usage and the mobility, thereby helping innovative low-cost solutions. An important capability of 5G technology is its scalability – the ability to support future devices on the current technology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I shall take this opportunity to thank our Professor, Dr. Martin Reisslein and our college Arizona State University for their constant support all the way throughout the work.

REFERENCES:

  1. A Gohil, H. Modi, S. Patel “5G Technology of Mobile Communication: A Survey” 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP)
  2. Toni Janevski, ‘A System for PLMNWLAN Internetworking’, Journal of Communications and Networks (JCN), pp. 192- 206, Vol 7, No. 2, June 2005.
  3. Suk Yu Hui, Kai Hau Yeung, “Challenges in the Migration to 4G Mobile Systems”, IEEE Communications Magazine, December 2003
  4. Janise McNair, Fang Zhu, “Vertical Handoffs in FourthGeneration Multinetwork Environments”, IEEE Wireless Communications, June 2004.
  5. https://www.qualcomm.com/media/documents/files/qualcomm-5g-vision-presentation.pdf
  6. https://www.qualcomm.com/invention/5g/what-is-5g
  7. https://www.tutorialspoint.com/5g/5g_advantages_disadvantages.htm
  8. Jivesh Govil, Jivika Govil, ‘5G : Functionalities development and an Analysis of Mobile Wireless Grid’, First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology
  9. Toni Janevski, “Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless IP Networks”, Artech House Inc., Boston, USA, May 2003.
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5G
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RECENT DEVELOPMENT IN 5G TECHNOLOGY. (2021, Oct 16). Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/examples/recent-development-in-5g-technology/

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