Cell Phone: Descriptive Essay Unveiling its Multifaceted Wonders

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Updated: Aug 23, 2023
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How it works

History says that Alexander Graham Bell created the first telephone. He created the telephone in 1876. The telephone was a very revolutionary invention. Later in 1900, on December 23, a man on the outskirts of Washington named Reginald Fessenden made the first wireless telephone call. I know that this is just the beginning of the idea of the phone. It went from telephones to rotary phones and eventually to your everyday iPhone. In this essay, I will explain to you how a cell phone works.

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I will be telling you about a screen, a processor, a battery, RAM, and finally, an antenna.

The Mechanics Behind Cell Phones

The first part of a cell phone is a touch screen. There are 2 types of touch screens. The first is a resistive touch screen. A resistive touch screen is a touch screen that uses pressure. There are two electrically conductive layers that make a resistive touch screen work. One of them is a resistive layer, and the other is a conductive layer. They are both separated by tiny dots that are called spacers. Spacers are used to separate the layers until you touch them. The layers always have an electric current flowing through them. When you touch the screen, wherever you touch, it depends on where the layers are pushed together and where the electric current changes. Capacitive touch screens have a bad effect too. I know that they make it harder to see. The second type of screen is a capacitive screen. Instead of using pressure capacitive touch screens, use sensors that work when the screen detects an electrical charge. Capacitive touch screens are made up of copper or indium tin oxide and or are able to store electrical charges in an electrostatic grid of tiny wires. All of these wires are smaller than a human. There are two main types of capacitive touch screens. They are surface and projective. In a Surface capacitive touch screen, they’re sensors at the corners and a thin piece of film that goes across the screen. In A projective capacitive touch screen, they’re a grid of rows and columns that each have a separate chip for sensing. In conclusion, the screen is very complex.

Harnessing Speed with RAM

The next part of a phone is RAM. RAM stands for random access memory. A RAM basically just makes it faster to upload or open something. Let’s say you download something. The app would be downloaded to the storage and then to the ram because it is easier and it is faster. Also, the RAM helps you access an app faster. The more RAM you have, the more apps you can run consistently. The RAM is a second line of storage for a CPU.

The Heart of the Device: Processor

The next part of a phone is the processor. There are many parts to a processor. There is a CPU, a SOC, and a GPU. A SOC stands for a system on a chip. It is called this because it is what everything is put on to help run the processor. They put it on a SOC because there is not enough room to put everything on a different chip, so they just put it on the Soc. A CPU stands for the central processing unit. The CPU handles most of the things, such as running the OS and touch screen functions. A GPU stands for the graphics processing unit. The GPU processes the graphic and visual data. The GPU does things such as rendering web pages and gameplays. It is much better to have a good GPU than to have the CPU handle it. It lets the GPU handle it because it offers better image processing, better geometric realism, and better anti-aliasing. This also lowers the power consumption. The better the GPU, the better experiences you’ll have with complex web browsing and 3D video games. In conclusion, the processor is very interesting.

Connecting the World: The Antenna

The next part of a phone is an Antenna. In a phone, there is at least 1 antenna. An antenna converts an electric signal to a radio wave, such as a transmitter or a receiver. A phone either uses one antenna as the transmitter and receiver or they have multiple antennas for transmitting or receiving. An antenna is made out of a metallic element such as copper that is a specific size to receive specific frequencies. The older phones had external or extractible antennas, but today we have more compact antennas thanks to advanced antenna technologies. All in all, you should probably have an antenna, or else you will not be sending anything or receiving anything.

Powering the Device: The Battery

The final part of a phone that I will be talking about is the battery. A lithium battery has three components. A positive electrode, a negative electrode, and a chemical called electrolyte. Called lithium cobalt oxide or LiCoO2 for short. In newer batteries, there is lithium-ion phosphate, or LiFePO4 for short. A negative electrode is made up of carbon (graphite), and the electrolyte varies from one type of battery to another. When you are charging your battery, the LiCoO2 positive electrode gives up some of its lithium ions. This is how the battery takes in and stores energy. If the battery is discharging, the lithium ions move back across the electrolyte to the positive electrode to power the battery. Unlike simple batteries, lithium-ion ones have a built-in electronic controller that regulates how they charge and discharge. They prevent the overcharging and overheating that can cause the battery to explode. In the end, batteries are very complex and can be dangerous.

Conclusion: The Wonders of Modern Technology

In conclusion, the phone is a very complex and very well-engineered piece of technology. This project was fun, and it wasn’t that difficult. All I had to do was put some time into it. In this project, I learned how a battery works, a processor works, an antenna works, a screen works, and finally, how a RAM works. This project was a very good experience.


  1. Bellis, M. (2021). The Invention of the Telephone. ThoughtCo.
  2. Regal, B. (2002). Radio: The Life Story of a Technology. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  3. Chen, T. C., & Weill, L. R. (2004). Designing and Evaluating Capacitive Touch Sensing Technology for Mobile Devices. IBM Systems Journal, 44(2), 259-270.
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Cell Phone: Descriptive Essay Unveiling Its Multifaceted Wonders. (2023, Jun 20). Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/examples/cell-phone-descriptive-essay-unveiling-its-multifaceted-wonders/