Benefits of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is the theory and development of computer systems capable of performing tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making and translation between languages. Artificial intelligence has its advantages and disadvantages. Some of these advantages would be the few mistakes they would make; some of these robots could be used to explore the space that goes to the moon or other planets, also to explore the deepest oceans and mining.

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One of the biggest advantages that you would have to use this machinery would be that they do not need to sleep and do everything without any delay or waste of time. Artificial intelligence would be reduced to the importance of robots, and would not show any kind of feeling in what refers to medical care, in case the time comes or when humans are replaced by robots this makes them feel useless and not wanting to do anything else that they will live and they will not have work or to give them the most basic, this would lead to a war and total destruction. There are different types of artificial intelligence that have been developed in recent years.

History

Artificial Intelligence is a field in technology that has been around for many years with the contributions of Alan Turing. Turing is considered the father of Artificial Intelligence and one of the precursors of modern computing. He was a mathematician, theoretical computer scientist, cryptographer, an English philosopher. Turing believed that anything ever that humanity can compute could also be computed by his theoretical Turing Machine. After World War 2, Turing was asked to develop a machine, and he provided a detailed design but did not see it built because his partners believed it too difficult. Eventually, his machine would be built by the Royal Society Computing Machine Laboratory in 1948 which was influenced by his work (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2018). This would be the beginning of AI research.

Today, AI is used in more and more areas. Hollywood and the technology companies use it for entertainment and to make apps. Other private sectors use it for “tax preparation, songwriting, and digital advertising” (Hurd and Kelly, 2018). Governments have also used it for things like medical treatment and to help solve crimes (2018). As AI use increases, it is important to see what the good and bad things are from it.

Positives

Artificial intelligence has gained great value in recent years. Modern systems have the ability to manage large amounts of data and simplify calculations very quickly. The inventors of artificial intelligence are looking to expand this technology further into the future. therefore, artificial intelligence will achieve greater growth in the coming years. In this way, the artificial intelligence system will surpass and achieve incomparable performance, so much so that it is managing to generalize to the basic tasks of humans.

The robots are manufactured in all sizes and are programmed to perform all kinds of functions. They exist from the most basic that perform simple tasks, to the most complex that achieve the same performance as a person with university degrees. Each day different types of machines are built, which perform simple or complex tasks faster than a person. This is leading to increased efficiency for businesses. In their study, Masayuki Morikawa surveyed more than 3000 Japanese businesses and found that they were positive on the increase of AI being used in their company. They also found that the use of AI complimented the skills of current employees with higher degrees, creating a demand for better workers (2016). The benefits and the opportunities with the use of artificial intelligence can help in many ways; Increasing the finances of a business, improving the security this technology could help to diminish the risk of viruses, or solve them and keep companies safe from cyber attacks. In other things for many people this can be a good start for their economy and to be able to maintain control over what they can buy or where it is much better to invest. “AI technology is increasingly providing us with new knowledge and information about our actions. Fueled by sensors, data digitization, and ever-increasing connectedness, AI filters, associates, prioritizes, classifies, measures, and predicts outcomes, allowing the federal government to make more informed, data-driven decisions” (Maughn 2018).

The data-driven decisions the federal government makes is already showing. The testimony of Douglas Maughan state that AI has assisted the Department of Homeland Security in preventing attacks against critical infrastructure like banks and 911 centers. He also spoke about the ability of AI to help with intelligence gathering. For example, Customs and Border Protection has used AI to try and identify travelers that could be a threat to the country (2018).

Negatives

In terms of employment for people, once AI becomes used more and more, there are concerns expressed by many. Adam Butler quotes that “the next 3 years will see half a million more jobs created” but also “more than half of today’s jobs [will become] automated within the next 35 years” (2018). The robots are manufactured to work and act like normal equipment since this is seen every day. To the point of becoming so real in some countries already have robots taking over for people: Mexico occupies 30 with 33 robots for every 100 employees, Argentina occupies the 36 with 16 units and Brazil the number 38 with 11 units. The robots are more and more in the whole world and every time it becomes more real and more present than ever (Morikawa 2016).

Another issue with AI is the fact that despite not being 100% reliable, people still trust it more than a human. Wagner, Borenstein, and Howard give different examples of when people overtrust AI like a robot. In one study, the people were put in a fake emergency situation and instead of following evacuation signs, they listened to the robot even when they were told before that the robot was broken (2018).

This September, the Subcommittee on Information and Technology in the U.S. House of Representatives released a report on AI. While it did have positives for its use, it also spoke about negative things. The malicious use of AI will change the way we build and manage the digital infrastructure as well as our AI system and this will require many answers and more personnel from different industry. What negative effects would the bad management of AI bring us? And how do we prevent this damage to society? The subcommittee hearing also highlighted the need to prepare for and protect against the malicious use of AI. “Earlier this year, Open AI, a non-profit AI research company that testified at one of the hearing, co-authored a report findings that unless adequate defenses are developed, AI progress, will result in cyber attacks that are ‘more effective, more finely targeted, more difficult to attribute, and more likely to exploit vulnerability in AI systems'” (Hurd and Kelly, 2018).

Future

For the future, all the writers agree on several things. The first is that the research in Artificial Intelligence should continue and increase. The federal government wants to stay the leader in research so China cannot beat us (Hurd and Kelly 2018). It also wants to use it to increase use in Homeland Security to protect the nation and the peoples within it (Maughan 2018). Second is that private companies want to use it to make better things that cost less money to make. Robert Atkinson writes that people should not worry about their jobs being taken by robots because companies will still need people to fix the robots which will actually create more jobs. He also says that every time in history when a new technology comes and decreases jobs at first, more jobs come later and that is a benefit for everyone.

In conclusion, the artificial intelligence is achieving a great stability in everyday life. Even though robots can substitute people in critical jobs such as laborers or marketing they cannot have their personal creativity and no emotions. Conversely, we human beings have a huge range. Increasing steps are being taken in terms of machinery and use of these in different points of daily life. Artificial intelligence is a debate between society and those who support the contribution made to help humanity with the problems of hunger and above all poverty. In this process, the definition of the necessary data formats and the corresponding mechanisms to protect security and privacy will be particularly important.

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