This study considers the effectiveness of Public and Private sector SME-development programs and current development of SMEs in AJK. This study presents some major facts and it undertakes a brief international literature review. To examine the status of small and medium sized-enterprises and their SMEs developmental strategies, a questionnaire survey is help among the owners and top managers of those enterprises.
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Chi-square test is used for analyzing the information. The study results that the main pressure faced by small entrepreneurs are incontinent and burdensome business rules and regulations, shortfall of finance, and less HR and technological capabilities. Secondly, SMEs report for more than 90% of all firms outside the agriculture sector so they are of overwhelming power to AJK. And the most important of all, the government has been the major supporting agency for SMEs in AJK but government and private programs are not so encouraging for SME development. This study suggests public private partnership (PPP) as future strategy for SMEs development in AJK.
The Influence of Demographical Factors on the Interaction between Entrepreneurship and Unemployment:-
1. The cooperation between unemployment and entrepreneurship evaluates tee status of a person in the labor market. An investigation of the collective relations of unemployment and entrepreneurship exhibit that there are pull and push effects in both theory and practice.
2. Demographic factors determined in observational studies such as age, gender, education, marital status, employment/unemployment level, immigration, race, ethnic minorities, etc”differently impact business development. Three factors can positively or negatively affect business such as age, education, and unemployment level. Spouse/parent’s presence as ethnic minority, work experience, emigration, and entrepreneur has positive impact on business. However, gender differences can negatively affect the business. Marital status affects men’s and women’s willingness to start up a business.
3. According to Pearson’s correlation and regression calculations business and demographic characteristics, there is a strong relationship between the barometers of the relation between the number of established companies with a ratio of the number of unemployed men and women in higher educational or occupational training and unemployment duration (1-2 months, 3-5 months) of operating firms. Hence, it concludes that unemployment is reduced by higher education and short-term unemployment of men and women which have positive effects on creation of business. This proves that “PUSH” affect largely contribute to the demographic factors.
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