The Evidence Shows that Cross-cultural Exchanges in the Early Modern Period
The cited resources evidence shows that cross-cultural exchanges in the early modern period were the routine mode of trade. The leaders set strict rules and laws governing their empire. The leaders to sustain and to retain their empires, must remain strong and zealous and fairness in process of executing duties. Mentioned acts in the texts justified how the leaders’ strict laws ensured the sustainability of his colony. Themes raised from these texts include Illegal slave trade, religious fanatic, and extremism, loyalty and betray of the servants to their leaders, harsh dictatorial leadership all illustrating how the freedom and injustices were committed amongst the peoples.
In his Letter to the Emperor Carlos V, Hernan Cortes emphasizes the usefulness of Marina Dona, as a translator when he wants to associate with people not of his language. A woman named Marina Dona is the link, despite his cross relationship to her, Madina was among the twenty women given to Him when they “visited” Your Highness, the King at Montezuma’s city. As they never sought the permit to enter his empire, he ordered all of them to be killed but in return, they returned the favor by fighting courageously and the victory was his and his men. They conquered the city even the chiefs of Tobasco and habitats in that city who survived Cortes wrath came to respect him the following morning. The habitats of the overthrown city were obsessed with the worship of idols as they were compelled by their King. Corts coming introduced the true worship of God and even they set the first altar for the worship of the true God.
The theme of Harsh, dictatorial leadership is well brought from the excerpt addressed to the joint Bugyo of Nagasaki by the Tokugawa Shogunate laws(1635) ordering the closing of Japan. The laws point to the consequences to follow if one of Japans citizen relates to international contacts. Tokugawa strict rules were meant to dominate Japan and protect his interests in the name of ensuring security to the people of Japan. The laws like “no Japanese Ships or citizen should leave for foreign countries secretly or knowingly, and if found, the owner of the ship is seized and the owner arrested and taken to the upper authorities .
No Christianity should whatsoever be practiced or taught in Japan. Samurais were not allowed to buy goods directly from Chinese Merchants in Nagasaki whose origin is foreign and imprisonment of westerners of who commits the teachings of padres” The laws stated(page 22-222)The theme of loyalty and fairness has shown up by Turkish letter (1554-1562) excerpt by Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq. He was ambassador to Holy Roman Emperor at the Sublime Pourte.
In his letter, he narrates of the foreign accounts of the events in the Ottoman state in prospects to help bring change to his home country. He narrates how the Turkish citizens only get what they worked for but not what they deserve. He says if one wanted to get a promotion, it was through his own merits capability and experience to be competent and be assigned any duty in public department. Sultan’s selections do not depend on family background, wealth status in the family nor fame. According to Ghiselin¦”No distinction is attached to birth among the Turks the deference to be paid to a man is measured by the position he holds in the public service… A man’s place is marked out by the duties he discharges”. Unlike his country where on gets public duties in the order of popularity, family background, wealth rank even without the capability to execute the duties assigned.
He wishes if his countrymen can by this good aspect from the Turkish nation. Slave trade was common despite being illegal. According to Alexander Falconbridge, he narrates his experience as a worker at the coast of Africa in one of the ships involved in illegal trade. His quest to know how and what led to people being sold into slavery, he associated with the slaves enquiring some questions regarding what led to their capture.
Responses he gets concludes that even African Negroes themselves contributed to the flourishing of the illegal slave trade business. The African slaves were being sold into slavery by people of their kind. He happened to witness a transaction where buy a trader invited his friend who lived upcountry. The trade entertained his guest, he betrayed his guest and sold him off in the pretense of being seized by sea pirates where the guest was kidnapped and he was left. This scenario made the Falconbridge compare African to cattle. The way people bled cattle for sale, the same as African bled children and later sold them to slavery. Additionally, a man kidnapping and selling his fellow countrymen to slavery because of money or any other privilege is the inhuman act and should be abolished immediately. The act had not only become general but the only mode of procuring the slaves.
The excerpts cited resources shows the history of injustices and vices committed to fellow countrymen by their harsh leaders and the African Negroes during the early days. Despite the excerpt addressing those vices, the Turkish Letter gives hopes of change in the near future to his country if they can learn on democracy in Turkey.
- David J. Lu. The Dawn of History to the Late Tokugawa Period. Document. Edited by Armonk .New York: M.E Sharpe,1997.page 221-222.Retrieved from http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/ps/japan/tokugawa_edicts_foreigners.pdfDe Busbecq, Ogier Ghislain.
- The Turkish letters of Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq, imperial ambassador at Constantinople, 1554-1562. Clarendon P., 1968.Retrieved from https://books.google.com/books?idFalconbridge, Alexander, excerpt from An account of the slave trade on the coast of Africa, The Slave trade https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1555busbecq.asp
- Pagden, Anthony. “Hern Corts: Letters from Mexico.” New Haven: Yale UP (1986) History. Retrieved from https://chnm.gmu.edu/wwh/modules/lesson6/pdfs/primarysourcepacket.pdf and https://dp.la/primary-source-sets/sources/316.