Managing Organizations & People Program/location
The purpose of this assignment is to highlight the power of managing people and organizations and the importance of leadership. Section A will draw on relevant literature and apply a model of team effectiveness to critically discuss how healthcare organizations can enhance team effectiveness. Section B will assess the culture of the service unit in which I work. The tool that will be applied is the Competing Value Framework. An in-depth cultural assessment will be highlighted and discussed, the relevant literature related to our organizational culture types will be presented, and the impact of this culture on the current healthcare organization and it\s openness to change is analyzed.
Section A: Team Effectiveness: Healthcare organizations are challenged by patient numbers increased, sustaining patient care, safety, and satisfaction costs control and reducing waste. Challenges pressured the need of the experienced leader (Warrick, 2011). Studies supported the argument that leaders can make changes to their junior’s satisfaction and performance. Leadership is responsible for whether organizations succeed or fail (Bass & Bass, 2009). Leadership is someone’s behavior controlling group activities toward common goals.
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An important part of leadership role includes influencing group activities and deal with change. Leadership theories were developed for the business field and then applied to healthcare, so some difficulties arose during the application of the approaches in healthcare. Leadership theories progress to change over time. Healthcare systems are composed of departments, specialists, and professionals without linear interactions between them. Leadership needs to take the advantage of dealing with the mixture of goals with the effective use of the organizational resources, encouraging others to work toward common goals.
Many leadership applications can be adapted to healthcare workers for effective management in this highly complex environment (Al-Sawai, 2013). The team is a group of interconnected people, distributes the work to reach common goals, seen by others as a perfect community existence, integrated into one or bigger community structures (Lemieux-Charles & McGuire, 2006). Teamwork is a changing mechanism consisting of two or more experts with interdependent educations, cultures, and experiences, shared health aims, and applying mental and physical attempts for evaluating and outlining patient healthcare.
This is achieved through good cooperation, communication, and joint decision?making. It is a valuable organizer in distributing quality healthcare supplies internationally (Xyrichis, & Ream, 2008). Teamwork is a valuable element for reaching aims in any field region or action, it is powerful tool in achieving stable development structure, and team performance because it helps in the exchange and exchange of knowledge and experience, finds answers for troubles, and improves employee accountability (Cooney & Sohal, 2004, Jaca et al., 2013).
Different teams have different members; the same member can be on different teams (Jaca et al., 2013). Five standards should be available in healthcare teams: common aims, distinct responsibilities, shared faith and expectation, active communication, and determinable development and results (Mitchell et al., 2012). There are more than 130 models and frameworks established on team performance (Salas et al., 2008), most of them were based on IPO (input-process-output) originally launched by McGrath (1954), the widely accepted model for conceptualizing teams is the IPO (input-process-output) (Jaca, et al., 2013).
Input-Process-Output (IPO) Team Effectiveness Model: Initially developed by McGrath (1964). The model displays a team process structure. Teamwork. Improvement visualized mentally as an action that is changed by a particular part associated with structure, design and team features are called (input). Liked tasks and communication among team members are called (processes), and the results are called (outcomes). It illustrates a teamwork mechanism in which many components affect both outcome and efficiency.
This model was broadly used for team performance use, it is deficient in describing the team, and differentiating between process and issues. It has received much criticism because of lack of a feedback system in the learning process. (Jaca et al., 2013). Teamwork considerations allow member communication and sharing teamwork performance (Mathieu et al., 2008). GRPI Model of Team Effectiveness: GRPI model was designed by Rubin, Plovnick, and Fries in 1977. GRPI stands for goals, roles, processes, and interpersonal relationships, and is illustrated in a pyramid shape. It is simple and useful when building a new team and when a team is facing an unknown cause of the problem (Wrike Blog: Lionel Valdellon, 2016) The team needs four elements to be productive:
- Goals: Aims should be properly identified with open communication.
- Roles: A leader should be known and accepted by the members and has clear responsibilities.
- Processes: Well-defined procedures and decision-making systems.
- Interpersonal relationships: Positive communication, expectation, and adaptation. (Wrike Blog: Lionel Valdellon, 2016).
Katzenbach and Smith Model: They studied teams across many companies, with different obstacles. Launched their model in 1993. They published a book (wisdom of teams). Their model is a triangle in shape, the three corners of the triangle are a set of personal growth, the right corner represents personal growth, the left corner represents collective work products, and the top corner represents performance results. The sides of the triangle represent the important elements that should be followed to reach the planned aims. The elements are:
- • Commitment: Teams have to have essential, well-known aims
- • Skills: Members have to have problem-solving, technical, and interpersonal skills.
- • Accountability: Members must have shared responsibilities to each other and to their work.
Teams consist of a small group of people. (Wrike Blog: Lionel Valdellon, 2016) They also define the team, a team that does a thing and a team that run things, they analyze the difference between group and team. It is the leading power, guidance, and control to convert the group into a remarkable team (Katzenbach & Smith, 1993). Katzenbach, J. R., & Smith, D. K. (2015).
The wisdom of teams: Creating the high-performance organization. Harvard Business Review Press. The T7 Model of Team Effectiveness: Michael Lombardo and Robert Eichinger developed the model in 1995. They identified two external and five internal factors, each starting with ‘T’. The internal factors are Thrust which defines the team aims, Trust between the team members, Talent represents team experiences and skills, Team skills is the efficiency to work as a team, and Task skills represent the skill to implement the work.
These factors have to exist in order for a team to be high performing which will be deficient in the absence of support of both leadership and organization. The external factors include Team leader fit (leader and team share the work) and Team support (from the organization). LaFasto and Larson Model: Called five dynamics of teamwork and collaboration.