Main Effects of Smoking

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Updated: May 16, 2022
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Just like any other drug, results differ from one person to another depending on the amount of substance consumed. According to the study, there are no safe levels of nicotine use, whether the amount used is small or a lot there are effects for each user. Additionally, smoking does affect not only the user but also the passive smokers. Therefore, the following are the long-term and short-term effects of smoking depending on the dose used.

 General Effects

First according to the study, tobacco has 4000 chemical ingredients.

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Also, tobacco contains 60 poisonous compounds. Tobacco smoking may impact decreasing in maternal serum chorionic gonadotrophin after a study of 23668 pregnancies in the middle of duration.(Tziomalos, K., & Charsoulis, F. 2004)

In the UK in 2007/2008 were 440,900 hospital admissions because of smoking. There were around 1.4 million adults going to hospitals and found they have daises caused by smoking. Around 83,900 people 35 years old died because of tobacco. In 2005/2006, the UK government spent 5.3 billion pounds to National Health Service. (Nariani, J., & Palmer, J. 2010).

Short-term effects

These are effects that occur immediately after smoking and do not last for long. Shortly after smoking there is an immediate stimulation to the human brain that reduces its activities and slows down the body nervous system. The body feels dizziness and becomes more relaxed. After smoking, there is an increase in blood pressure that increases high heart rate which in turn brings headaches. There is also bad breath from the mouth of the user which can make one nauseate and vomit. Smoking leads to low blood circulation to the toes and fingers and can result in convulsion. Irritation in the throat can cause respiratory arrest, and one can cough more continuously (William, 2013).

Long-term effects 

These are permanent problems that may affect users over a long period. They come in as both psychological problems and health issues. 

Health effects  


Cancer has become the primary risk associated with tobacco users. For tobacco smokers, they can suffer from mouth, throat, liver and pancreatic cancer. According to research most lung cancer is the most common to smokers due to the damages done to the air sacks in the lungs. For women who tend to smoke or smoke passively, they are at a high risk to suffer from cervix cancer. Cancer is one of the most deadly diseases in most parts of the word; something needs to be done to help users quit the drug (Rifkin and Lazris, 2014).


Most men who smoke are more likely to become impotent than non-smokers. Infertility is also associated with low sperm count produced by the glad. To others there is no erection at all due to no narrowing of arteries.  High blood pressure might narrow the arteries and damage the cell lining which reduces penile blood flow required for construction. Erection occurs when arteries in the penis contract and expand and fill with enough blood. If there is no communication between the pennies and arteries, then the erection does not occur. 

Female infertility

Being infertile means lacking the ability to bear children. For most women who smoke, nicotine interferes with the body production of oestrogen hormone responsible for ovulation. If the ovulation does not take place, then it means the ovary does not release eggs to fertilize a sperm. Smoking also interferes with embryo implantation on the uterus because nicotine weakens the uterus. Additionally, infertility might occur because smoking can bring about early menopause in women. Irregular periods also associated with high use of nicotine might hinder one from bearing a child.

Cardiovascular disease

The high rate of using nicotine is likely to expose one to heart diseases due to blood vessel problems. Smoking can make blood vessels either thick or narrow; this increases the heartbeat rates hence increasing the blood pressure. When the pressure is high, the person can suffer from heart attack. Heart problems may also occur when it beats more fast dues to poor circulation of oxygen in the blood. In case an artery carrying blood to the brain block the person is likely to experience a stroke.  

Respiratory diseases

This occurs when one experiences difficulties in breathing. When smoke enters the lungs, it damages the air sacs the filter carbon dioxide and oxygen. When they get destroyed, one may feel the difficulty of breathing and heavy coughing may follow up as lungs struggle to get fresh air. Other respiratory diseases caused by smoking are asthma, bronchitis, and tuberculosis. Additionally, in term of health in case the user has diabetes, he or she may have difficulty coping with symptoms. Smokers also experience a decrease in appetite and back pains (Rifkin and Lazris, 2014). 

Physiological problems  

Although most people say they smoke to reduce stress, smokers seem to experience the highest level of stress compared to non-smokers. When one smoke, the moods changes suddenly and you can tell the person is stressed. When the user stops smoking, they lack concentration and look more stressed, and he or she needs to take the substance once more to focus on whatever they are working on to succeed (Lewis, 2010).

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

When an expectant mother uses this drug, it might cross the placenta and cause damage to the unborn child. The child is likely to acquire some disorders during development especially if used in the first trimester. Smoking can cause early labour which might result in miscarriages and premature births. A mother who smokes is in a high risk of getting ectopic pregnancy due to hormonal changes. For the lactating mothers, the drug can be passed directly to the baby through breast milk which can later lead to infant death (Rifkin and Lazris, 2014). 

Poor Social behaviours 

People addicted to smoking are most likely unable to make good decisions in life. They are idlers hence putting the society at a security risk. Many get associated with unethical behaviours such as divorces. They lack adequate respect from other members of society.

Economic problems

Although selling of tobacco increases income to the state, the effects of the drugs are taking away many lives of the people. With a high mortality rate, the economy will degrade due to its poor performance. The government also uses high cost to provide medication to the affected people who raise the cost of living (Andersen,  Bast, and Due, 2018).

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Main Effects Of Smoking. (2019, May 22). Retrieved from