Magnetism in Nanomaterials
The basic concepts regarding the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and a static or time-varying external magnetic field were reviewed. How these pertain to current biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles were also analyzed. The focus was in particular on magnetic separation and drug delivery. Although these are only two of the many biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles that are currently being explored. The main mechanism was oscillatory movement of ferromagnetic ions; magnetic twisting cytometry, a process in which ferromagnetic microspheres are bound to specific receptors on a cell wall.
Using the dynamic magnetic field generator, iron oxide nanoparticles in solution can have controlled rotational movement. This rotational nanoparticle movement can be applied for remote induction of apoptosis by injuring lysosomal membrane structures. The findings suggest that treatment of lysosome-targeted nanoparticles offers a noninvasive tool to induce apoptosis remotely (Zhang et al., 2014).
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The development of cancer treatments with different modes of action is of the most importance in targeting cancer cells which evade chemotherapeutic treatment. With the novel approach of inducing cell mediated apoptosis by also coating the cell surface, targeting with chemotherapeutic drugs becomes more effective than the non directed means. This shows the greatest advantage of the cancer treatment in selectively killing the targeted cancer cells (Pankhurst, 2003).
This technique induced programmed cell death and apoptosis which killed the cell without creating any damaged to its surrounding tissue and accelerated the healing process. The lack of heat produced by this procedure allowed researchers to study the mechanisms of nanoparticle rotation.
Changing the direction of an applied magnetic field twists the microsphere by a measurable amount, which can then be related to the mechanical properties of the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. Nanoparticles are an emerging technology that are being explored for numerous uses beyond the scope of this poster.