Magnetism in Nanomaterials
How it works
The basic concepts regarding the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and a static or time-varying external magnetic field were reviewed. We also analyzed how these pertain to the current biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles, focusing particularly on magnetic separation and drug delivery. However, these are only two of the many biomedical applications of magnetic nanoparticles currently being explored. The main mechanism involves the oscillatory movement of ferromagnetic ions in magnetic twisting cytometry. This process involves binding ferromagnetic microspheres to specific receptors on a cell wall.
Using the dynamic magnetic field generator, the rotational movement of iron oxide nanoparticles in solution can be controlled. This rotational nanoparticle movement can be applied for remote induction of apoptosis by damaging lysosomal membrane structures. Findings suggest that treatment with lysosome-targeted nanoparticles offers a noninvasive tool to induce apoptosis remotely (Zhang et al., 2014).
Developing cancer treatments with different modes of action is critical for targeting cancer cells that evade chemotherapeutic treatment. Notably, the novel approach of inducing apoptosis—cell-mediated death—by coating the cell surface enhances the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. The greatest advantage lies in the selective annihilation of targeted cancer cells, making the treatment more effective than non-directed means (Pankhurst, 2003).
This technique induces programmed cell death or apoptosis, killing the cell without causing damage to surrounding tissue, thus accelerating the healing process. The absence of heat produced during this procedure allows researchers to study the mechanisms of nanoparticle rotation more accurately.
Changing the direction of an applied magnetic field twists the microsphere by a measurable amount. This twisting can be related to the mechanical properties of the cell membrane and cytoskeleton. Nanoparticles are an emerging technology being explored for numerous uses beyond the scope of this poster.