Effective Leadership

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Category: Psychology
Date added
2021/01/14
Pages:  10
Words:  3100
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Introduction

Leadership idea has transformed for an extended period now. This is because leadership has been seen to involve various approaches and styles. Therefore, leadership has been recognized as a process where actions and operations, creativity, emotions, body, and souls are all related to a particular individual in a specific position (Ünsar, 2014). It has been seen that a leader is a person that inspires others or themselves and the activities in their environment for a particular business purpose, life, or career.

Additionally, leadership is a process where the leader guides, directs and influences the behaviour and work of others so that they can accomplish the specific objectives in a given situation (Tohidi & Jabbari, 2012). Leadership is, therefore, the ability to induce subordinates to perform work with confidence and morale. It is therefore required for a leader in developing future visions within an organization so that the members can achieve the goals of the vision. According to Keith Davis, leadership is a human factor that seeks to bind a certain group of individuals and motivate them toward a certain objective.

It has been observed that the aspects that are put forward to explain how an individual become leaders are leadership theories. These theories stress the traits, characters, and behaviours that the individuals in a certain position of authority adopt to enhance their leadership abilities. There are various types of leadership theories that have been developed. However, the most important one is the transactional and transformational leadership theories.

On the other hand, leadership style is the behavioural patterns that a manager uses to influence the behavior of their staff. Various leadership styles have been put forward by many authors. However, the essential leadership styles are autocratic and participative leadership styles.

This paper, therefore, observes a leader in a certain position whose role and leadership behaviours have changed. Here, the leader that is going to be discussed is the former Apple Corporation CEO, Steve Jobs.

Body

Born on February 24th, 1955, Steve Jobs was an American businessperson and inventor. Steve played a significant role in the Apple Company’s success, especially the Apple computers (Popejoy, 2017). Additionally, it ensures the development of advanced technology such as the MacBook, iPad, and iPod became a reality in the technological world.

Steve Job’s leadership styles led to the successful turning of Apple to one of the largest tech giants in the world. It was seen that in his leadership, Job’s has a vision which made Apple Corporation be where it is now (Isaacson, 2012). Additionally, Job’s developed a passion for self-confidence to turn his dream into a reality. He also challenged the limits of his employees, took risks, and did not aim below perfection.

Today, it has been seen that some people would argue that Steve Jobs was an exemplary leader. On the other hand, some would disagree with this notion. It has, therefore, been observed that Steve Jobs’ leadership style when he was Apple Company’s CEO is challenging to comprehend. This is because his position fit many leadership styles.

Successful leaders like Steve Jobs have attributed a great leadership style and behavior (Toma & Marinescu, 2013). It was seen that his leadership styles were related to transactional and transactional systems.

Leadership Theories

As seen earlier, the aspects that are put forward to explain how an individual become leaders are leadership theories. These theories stress the traits, characters, and behaviours that the individuals in a certain position of authority adopt to enhance their leadership abilities (Davis, Buskist, & Miller, 2012). There are various types of leadership theories that have been developed. However, the most important one is the transactional and transformational leadership theories.

In the case of Steve Jobs, he was Apple’s co-founder, along with some of his friends. However, his type of leadership made him be nominated among his peers to be the one to spearhead the operations at the company. It has been seen that Steve has exhibited both transformational and transactional leadership theories to run the company successfully.

Transactional Leadership

Being a transactional leader involves scenarios where the manager uses intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to motivate or punish their subordinates based on the company’s performance outcome (Judge & Piccol, 2004). Here, it is seen that the leaders tend to hold on authority to various assets and correct employees through training to reach the goals and objectives of the organization.

At Apple, Steve Jobs successfully motivated his employees. Despite the various accusations levelled against him, he was still able to create something great by motivating his employees. Additionally, Steve Jobs behavior fit in as a transactional leader in that he was also able to direct efforts of his employees and others through structures and tasks.

He influenced his employees to work, shared his passion with staff, and provided vision to the company. This was one of the factors that led him to rise to the position of being a CEO at Apple. Steve Jobs also has an imperative ability to identify talent and active employees (Sharma & Grant, 2011). He then allocated them to the right place in the company. It was seen that every year, Steve took his top 100 employees for a retreat, which was an acknowledgement. One of the qualities of a transactional leader was the ability to take actions based on the employee’s performance. At Apple, Jobs categorized his employees in groups and fired those who did not meet the performance requirements of the company. Additionally, a transactional leader always has the desire to control, which was typical for Steve Jobs.

Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is proactive. Here, the leaders ensure that there is a change in the organizational culture where new ideas are implemented continuously. The leadership style also provides that the employees or followers are encouraged to engage in group associations and share their interests.

Various questions have been asked as to whether Steve Jobs was a transformational leader. Some reports surfaced citing his dictatorial side, but he was a leader whose vision, authenticity, and genuine commitment to task and people were incomparable. Additionally, Steve Jobs was viewed as more of a transactional leader than a transformational leader. However, as a transformational leader, Jobs focused on transforming others in that he ensured that they helped each other and look out for the organization as a whole. In his leadership, Jobs enhanced motivation, morale, and performance of his employees and followers (Steinwart & Ziegler, 2014).

He was by some categorized as a charismatic leader. Steve believed in innovation and managed to influence people because of his keen vision and success in the tech industry. In his book, “The Innovative Secrets of Steve Jobs”, he discussed seven principles which are doing what you love, kick start your brain, put a dent in the universe, sell dreams and not products, create insanely great experiences, says no to 1,000 things, and master the message. This shows that because of his principle, Jobs was open to innovation among his followers.

Leadership Styles

Autocratic Leadership

Leadership style is the behavioural patterns that a manager uses to influence the behavior of their staff. Various leadership styles have been put forward by many authors. However, the essential leadership styles are autocratic and participative leadership styles. Autocratic leadership is where the manager has absolute control over all the decisions that are made in the organization. the leader under this leadership style demonstrates authority and that there is less input from group members on decision making (Goethals, Sorenson, Burns, & Gustainis, 2012).

These leaders have been seen to make choices based on their ideas and judgments in that they seldom accept advice from followers. Before being the most influential person at Apple, there was a time when his co-founder wanted to give up the company to sell which Jobs was against. This is one of the reasons that explain that Jobs did not accept ideas from other people and had his choices based on his opinion that one day, the company will become famous, which it is.

Steve Jobs wanted his ideas and dreams to be done is a particular way, which he ensured they were done. Jobs believed that if he allowed other people to be involved, it would change the end product of a certain commodity (Kutsar, Ghose, & Kutsar, 2014).

At Apple, Steve Jobs decisions were made with minimal consultations. He made his decisions quickly, which allowed him to respond promptly to the changes in the business environment, which included facing competition issues with Microsoft. His employees considered him as being rude and obnoxious. This made him seek perfection at the company, which was deemed to be significant. This is one of the reasons that the employees feared him. Back in 2010, Steve Jobs was responsible for the creation and release of iPhone and iPods, which were not known to many. This was met by resistance. However, the quick decision by Jobs led to a significant 250% revenue growth at Apple, which competed favourably with Microsoft.

Participative Leadership

On the other hand, a participative leader is one that invites various inputs from the employees in the organization decisions. The employees are seen to be given information regarding the company issues. Their leader ensures that there is democracy shown that determines the action the company takes. This type of leadership is also referred to as democratic leadership.

Although Steve Jobs was not more of a democratic leader, his actions such as being successful at motivating, his employees made him be termed as being participative. Despite the various accusations levelled against him, he was still able to create something great by motivating his employees. Additionally, Steve Jobs directed the efforts of his employees and others through structures and tasks.

Power and Influence

Power can be defined as the capacity to produce effects on others. Additionally, power can be viewed as having the ability to influence others. If someone has power, they tend to have the ability to affect others. Consequently, influence is the change in attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior of the target group by an individual as a result of the influence tactics. It has been seen that charisma, persuasion, likeability, or motivation can be able to influence others.

It was seen that Steve Jobs can influence others. This is because Jobs has a dynamic personality in that if you were in his life, he had one of the three relationships with you. For example, Jobs could seduce you, scourge you, or ignore you. His influence was one of the reasons that he was able to build the Apple Empire at a tender age. This is because it was evident that Jobs influenced people to move with him.

Furthermore, when it comes to power, Jobs had the power to hold his employees accountable since he was one of the Apple Corporation founders. Steve Jobs was seen to assert his power often but sometimes not in a likeable way. His power and influence were extraordinary even after there was an attempted coup to remove him from office; he was returned due to the company’s setbacks in 1996. This shows how much of a leader Steve Jobs is.

Contingency Theory

This is a theory that is associated with the organization theory and was developed by Fiedler. Here, it has been seen that there is no better way for one to lead a company or organization and make decisions (Fiedler, 2006). However, it has been observed that the best action to do so is contingent with external and internal situations.

These situations include the organizational size, resource and operational activities differences, technology used, managerial strategies, and how the organization adapts to the environment. Therefore, contingency theory can be used to determine the effectiveness of a leader about their tasks, followers, and organizational goals.

Steve Jobs is a task-oriented leader, according to the contingency theory. This theory was developed to ensure leaders accustomed to both organization situations and leadership styles. A leader that is task-oriented as Steve involved themselves with particular procedures that have well-defined goals and objectives. Jobs was seen to concentrate on very few products that he well knew would be profitable to the company. He made sure that the organizational strategy was well defined. This made sure that the company’s goals and tasks to be handled efficiently and effectively.

Jobs behavior was that he was not perceived as a relationship-oriented leader. This is because he believed in work performed based on human relations. This can be seen in his well-known strictness, where he used to fire employees who did not perform well in their duties. He has low employee relationships where it was suggested that he would curse in front of the employees and even abuse them.

Jobs did not spare anyone whether they had a higher position in the company or not. These are the scenarios that have made Jobs to be classified as a more task-oriented leader that one who liked relationships. Because of this, Steve Jobs was able to strike significant deals, which were one of his fortunes. As a result, he was able to achieve the company’s specific goals. It was seen that he was one of the few leaders who has successful deal-making strengths. This contributed to his success as Apple’s president.

It has been seen that Steve Jobs power and influence has earned him respect as a leader and a significant number of following. Back in the 1990s, when Steve Jobs was relieved of his duties, he was able to start a new company called NeXT. The then Apple’s CEO, Amelio, who was looking for an OS for Apple, asked Jobs to add his idea to the company.

This instigated the idea to make Jobs an interim CEO in 1996. Due to his influence and former success, it was evident that Steve Jobs remained one of the most sorts after the guy in the tech world. This led to an increase in revenue for Apple and the stock raised by 30%. Additionally, giant tech gurus like Bill Gates have been seen as one of Steve Jobs followers.

Recommendations

One of the most potent visionary leaders of our time, Steve Jobs was both highly intellectual, and engineer minded who transformed the tech industry. Being human, it was observed that Steve Jobs leadership was not all that perfect. There are various recommendations on how Steve could behave differently and more effective. For example, Steve Jobs was known as being a bully to those below him. He publicly questioned the intelligence of the staff who made mistakes. It is recommended that Steve could not have to be arrogant to impress people with his abilities. A real leader should maintain and develop management and leadership skills to be effective.

Also, they did not often communicate the expectations and goals of the company to the staff. He did not understand why people don’t get it, yet it seemed so apparent to him. This led to the resignation of some employees. To be effective, Jobs could have allowed the inclusion for staff ideas for there to be a democracy. Also, Jobs could have spent time with his employees and make sure they understand the expectations and goals of the company.

Also, it was observed that Steve Jobs failed to train and invest in his staff. This is because he did not have any formal training. However, he was able to make decisions based on his instincts. For an effective leader, it is vital that Jobs could train and invest in his staff to develop the next generational leaders.

Moreover, Steve Jobs was a secretive leader in that he once did not allow programmers to see the products. Additionally, people were relieved of their jobs for letting out information to the public. At Apple, no one was allowed to share ideas. It was rumoured that in 2007, 12 employees were fired for seeing the final iPhone before its demonstration at MacWorld. To be an effective leader, Steve Jobs could have involved his staff in every activity. This is because the team could also make their contributions.

Conclusion

Leadership has been seen as a process where actions and operations, creativity, emotions, body, and souls are all related to a particular individual in a certain position. It has been seen that a leader is a person that inspires others or themselves and the activities in their environment for a particular business purpose, life, or career.

This paper has observed a leader in a certain position whose role and leadership behaviours have changed. Here, the leader discussed is the former Apple Corporation CEO, Steve Jobs. Born on February 24th, 1955, Steve Jobs was an American businessperson and inventor. Steve played a significant role in the success of Apple Company, notably the Apple computers. Additionally, it ensures the development of advanced technology such as the MacBook, iPad, and iPod became a reality in the technological world.

Steve Job’s leadership styles led to the triumphant turning of Apple to one of the largest tech giants in the world. It was seen that in his leadership, Job’s has a vision which made Apple Corporation be where it is now. Additionally, Job’s developed a passion for self-confidence to turn his dream into a reality.

Sadly, on October 5th, 2011, Steve Jobs succumbed to a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour which resulted in respiratory arrest.

References

  1. Davis, S., Buskist, W., & Miller, R. L. (2012). Leadership: Theory and Practice. In 21st Century Psychology: A Reference Handbook. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412956321.n68
  2. Fiedler, F. E. (2006). The contingency model: A theory of leadership effectiveness. In Small Groups: Key Readings. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203647585
  3. Goethals, G., Sorenson, G., Burns, J., & Gustainis, J. J. (2012). Autocratic Leadership. In Encyclopedia of Leadership. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412952392.n21
  4. Isaacson, W. (2012). The real leadership lessons of Steve jobs. Harvard Business Review.
  5. Judge, T. A., & Piccol, R. F. (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: A meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.5.755
  6. Kutsar, V., Ghose, N., & Kutsar, Y. (2014). Leadership Analysis Using Management Tools: Steve Jobs. American International Journal of Contemporary Research.
  7. Popejoy, M. W. (2017). Steve Jobs. Public Voices. https://doi.org/10.22140/pv.28
  8. Sharma, A., & Grant, D. (2011). Narrative, drama and charismatic leadership: The case of Apple’s Steve Jobs. Leadership. https://doi.org/10.1177/1742715010386777
  9. Steinwart, M., & Ziegler, J. A. (2014). Remembering Apple CEO Steve Jobs as a “Transformational Leader”: Implications for Pedagogy. Journal of Leadership Education. https://doi.org/10.12806/v13/i2/r3
  10. Tohidi, H., & Jabbari, M. M. (2012). Organizational culture and leadership. In Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.12.156
  11. Toma, S.-G., & Marinescu, P. (2013). Steve Jobs And Modern leadership. Manager.
  12. Ünsar, S. (2014). Leadership. In Contributions to Management Science. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-05248-9_1  
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Effective Leadership. (2021, Jan 14). Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/examples/effective-leadership/

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