Discriminations and Exclusions in Public Places

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Blacks suffer from many discriminations and exclusions in public places and services because of Jim Crow segregationist laws introduced in 1876. The law in Kansas allowed the principle of separate schools in their cities since in 1896, in the judgment of Plessy vs Ferguson, the United States Supreme Court, allowed states to impose racially segregated measurement laws. Therefore black children and whites children couldn’t attend the same school as stated in the text “Separate school shall be provided for children of the white and black races , and no child of either race shall ever be permitted to attend a school provider for children of the other race ”( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ) .

In 1950, began the fight of the civil rights movement, to obtain the end of inequalities between whites and black Americans. Brown vs the board of education was a case that helped shape America’s education system into what it is today. The NAACP National Association for the Advancement of Colored People got involved they sent lawyers such as Houston and Thurgood Marshall. Marshall had won a case before the Supreme Court, Sweatt v. Painter, in which the Court had ruled that a Texas law school purporting to offer black students an education equal to that which it offered whites was not—as measured by funding, faculty, or facilities—in fact equal. (Khan Academy, 2019). Marshall believed that segregation was lowering black children self-esteem by making them think they were inferior to white children. He said, “The summation of that testimony is that the Negro children have road blocks put up in their minds as a result of this segregation, so that the amount of education that they take in is much less than other students take in” ( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ).

All the testimony’s from witnesses such as the South Carolina educator, Dr. Kenneth Clark and especially Dr. Redfield’s testimony supported his points. He affirm that “We produced testimony to show what we considered to be the normal attack on a classification statute, that this court has laid down the rule in many cases set out in our brief, that in the case of the object or persons classified(…) no effort up to this date to show any basis for that classification other than that it would be unwise to do otherwise ”( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ). He also mentioned that “We are saying that there is a denial of equal protection of the laws, the legal phraseology of the clause in the Fourteenth Amendment, and not just this point as to equality and I say that because I think most of the cases in the past have gone off on the point of whether or not you have substantial equality” ( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ). In this statement, he’s saying that they are going against the fourteen amendments that granted citizenship and equal civil and legal rights to African Americans and slaves. In page 156 the court said in judge parker’s opinion “We think however that segregation of the races in the public schools, so long as equality of rights is preserved, is a matter of legislative policy for the several states, with which the Federal courts are powerless to interfere”( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ). Towards the end, the court decision was “that you cannot use race as a basis of classification” ( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ). Another participant named John W. Davis that represented the Board of Education encouraged segregation, as stated in the text he said“The second question to which I wish to address myself is that Article XIV, section7, of the constitution of South Carolina and section 5377 of the Code, both making the separation of schools between white and colored mandatory do not offend the fourteenth amendment of the constitution of the United States or deny equal protection”( Outlawing Segregation Brown v Board of education ). He also added that the defendant filed a supplemental report showing the progress that had been made, progress such as “salaries of teachers were equalized.

Curricula were made uniform and the state of South Carolina appropriated money to furnish school buses for black and white.” After Mr justice, Frankfurter said “what you are saying is, that as a matter of history, history puts a gloss upon “equal” which does not permit elimination or admixture of white and colored in this aspect to be introduced?”Mr. Davis replied “yes I am saying that. I am saying that equal protection in the minds of Congress of the United States did not contemplate mixed schools as a necessity”(Brown v Board of education ) this statement shows that he doesn’t want a change and he encourages segregate schools. In his opinion, colored schools were “preparing” the black students for the segregation that they would experience in everyday society. segregated schools simply prepared black children for the segregation they would face during adulthood, After Davis testament, Marshall argued that based on what he said “negro are taken out of the mainstream of American life in these states. There is nothing involved in this case other than race and color, and I do not need to go to the background of the statues or anything else.” “While we are talking about the feeling of the people in South Carolina, I think we must once again emphasize that under our form of government these individuals right of minority people are not to be left to even the most mature judgment of the majority of the people and that the only testing ground as to whether or not individual right are concerned in this Court .”(Brown v Board of education)

Marshall firmly argued that there shouldn’t be segregation in education because black children are not different than white children. In my opinion, based on the strong arguments of Mr. Marshall in the brown vs broader case, I can say that justice is served because today children of all color and race can attend the same school. This case changed history for young students all around the world now they are able to receive the same education as white people, there’s no difference skin color doesn’t matter.

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Discriminations and Exclusions in Public Places. (2019, Nov 27). Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/examples/discriminations-and-exclusions-in-public-places/

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