Density Based Traffic Control Using Arduino

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Updated: Mar 26, 2022
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Traffic congestion in recent times has become a serious problem in big cities because of which it takes more time to travel when compared to the non-peak hours. This delays the delivery of few services, increases noise and air pollution. Many researches are going on in order to control this issue and automating traffic control. One such type is the density-based traffic control system. It significantly saves one’s commuting time and thus helps to enhance productivity. Key words: traffic congestion, noise pollution, automating traffic control, density based The continuous growth of population and increase of vehicle movement on urban cities roads has resulted in traffic congestion in our roads, mainly on road junctions. During peak hour of the day this traffic congestion reaches maximum level. Due to which fuel consumption increases, sound pollution increases and traffic havoc occurs. Problems associated with traffic bottlenecks can be solved by an efficient alternative through the traffic control system provided in this study. It is easy to implement and also very cost affective.

The timing of the traffic signaling will be changes according to the density of the traffic in that specific lane implementing a traffic detection system and That prioritizes maximum vehicle lane by means of a signal adjustment unit.The traffi c detection unit and signal correction unit are performed with a microcontroller interface. The density detection is done by the ultrasonic sensor provided on each lane. These ultrasonic sensors work on the basic of principle on line of sight in detected an object. The sound sensors help to act as a signal correction device by eliminating the variance of sound from the default target value. In event that the noted sound value from the vehicles increases a current value or keeps on costantly increasing, the framework automatically detects and computerizes the signal to red Most traffic intersections present today are of fixed type which works on the preset timing given to them. Conventional traffic systems cannot be run on the basis of traffic density. Present traffic framwork have fixed timers that are set for regular intervals.

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These function on the basis of their preset timer irrespective of the traffic density. It can be observed that, on a cross intersection, with conventional traffic light system traffic on one side of the road can be more. In such a situation giving equal intervals of time for both traffics attributes to traffic congestion during peak hours and causes traffic delays on a particular lane. So, we propose a system that gives signals based on traffic density rather than conventional way of giving signal to the traffic lanes with equal timing rather than the traffic density at that particular period. This type of traffic control system can be used in urban societies as a better solution to traffic bottleneck. The aim of this research is to design and develop a traffic density detection and signal timing adjustment system based on the density at that particular time. This type system is limited to a cross roads (consisting of four roads at right angle to each other) for vehicles only.  Also, it is designed to provide a way of controlling traffic density and signal adjustment so as to change it from red(stop) to green(go) signal at the appropriate lanes for the approaching on the traffic density.

Due to the traffic on a given lane, the time allotted for the lane may be longer than others. For instance, during peak hours of work, the lanes leading to work places from residential homes will experience higher density. The opposite would be the case at the close of work. In such scenarios, it will be logical to allow longer passage time at the junction on the basis of density – the more the density, the longer the passage time. This is done because, if we allot same time to all the lanes, it leads to traffic congestion on the lane with higher traffic whereas few lanes will have no vehicle will be given equal time would be underutilized. To achieve this, a mechanism is implemented in which the time period for passage (indicated by green light) and for stopping (indicated by red light) is assigned based on the density of the traffic present at the instance of time. This system can be utilized and functioned in efficient way which further helps in reduced traffic congestion. Key words: traffic density, ultrasonic sensor, microcontroller interfacing, sound sensor, conventional traffic timing, density-based system, more efficient, hassle free operation. These parts potrey the process and the execution of Traffic Density Detention system. They are:

  •  Power supply unit
  • Traffic density measurment unit
  •  Signal adjustment unit
  •  Micro controller unit

This concept model operates on the principle of varying traffic signal delay based on number of vehicles entering through a particular portion of the lane. There will be four sensors located at 4 corners of the four-way crossing, that calculate the number of vehicles entering the portion of area enclosed by the sensors. In this conventional system, we use Ultrasonic sensors to design an intelligent framework for traffic detection. Ultrasonicsensors have a transceiver in themselves. They are positioned at a certain distance on the same side of the road. When the car(vehicle) passes via the ultrasonic sensors, the sensors identify the car(vehicle) and send the data to the microcontroller, the microcontroller counts the number of cars(vehicles) and shows the LED according to the vehicle distance. If the density is high, the GREEN LED will glow for more time than regular. The traffic LED’s will be running at a fixed delay of 5 seconds, which gives the delay of the entire process i.e. 20 seconds. This entire framework is placed at a junction where traffic density is more. LEDs and Ultrasonic sensors are interfaced with microcontroller.

The number of ultrasonicsensors used are four, six pairs of led’s. They are therefore connected to either of the two ports of the microcontroller.  Ultrasonic sensors, which are used as proximity sensors. The output voltage is determined by the distance between the object and the reference value. The reference value is determined by the resistance of the variable according to the required range. when the sensors detects any car(object), comparator low or else it gives +5volts. Microcontroller program counts this change, every time from low to high, which indicate the passing of a car. The objectives of the ultrasonicsensor is to detect any obstacle’s and how much far it is from the approaching traffic. The three LED’s red, orange, green are utilized to indicate theWAIT, READY-TO-GO and GO states.

Real time operating system (RTOS) is the concept used in this project as the time interval is decided on the basis of the traffic density at that particular period of time Using this algorithm, we find the framework absorbs considerably less energy, since the ultrasonicsensors on the four lanes are not always active, they are only active for five seconds during the shift from green lights from one street to the next, and time is also used very efficiently. Traffic can be managed very easily. The prototype worked profeciently with correct outputs, the real-life situation will be much more challenging. some the of challenge ought to be considered are listed as follows:  Short range Infra-Red sensors are not expected to function as well over long range. For large scale installations, we can use the Lazer, radar, or computer video processing system techniques.  Impact of stray signals may give bogus information to the sensor and cause conveying bogus information to themicrocontroller. Safety: to ensure no trade off is done on safety, for example, a secondary stand-by set-up that switches from automatic to manual mode, this would only be provided in case of sensor or circuit failure, so that traffic does not go beyond control.

As for potential developments, the traffic signals may also be remotely connected to the crossing, and would be able to predict the incoming traffic. This can be achieved by linking GPS and radio transmission signals to the sensor system. This will serve as an input and feedback mechanism which makes the signaling mechanism considerably smooth and free of congestion. In this paper we’ve studied about the functioning of traffic density control with the assistance of ultrasonicsensors which can work in adverse weather conditions without human assistance and micro- controller. We’ve enclosed this paper with figures, showing block diagrams which will make the explanation more clearer and easier to understand. We’ve studied through different perspectives in this paper. The main objective for this project is to reduce traffic density by using different sensors that are set up at the four-lane crossing, the pulse signal obtained by the sensors is transmitted to the microcontroller and the variable compares the traffic at the four-lane crossing, the lane with maximum traffic density is given primary priority and this road is considered as a retraction.

Microcontroller monitors the delays fixed for the lanes and helps the process to flow in an orderly manner. The traffic signal display will be in similar format, but will change according to microcontroller and ultrasonic sensor values. The significant aspect the power saving framework, the sensors embedded on all the lanes are not active all the time, they are active just five seconds and it follows a chain process taking heavy density lanes as a preference. Todays traffic clog is the most concerning issue which can seen all over the place. In this way, this framework will assist us with supplanting the present issues with the cutting edge arrangement and favorable circumstances. This procedure will truly assist us with making the future streets exceptionally light and free with mishaps.


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Density Based Traffic Control Using Arduino. (2022, Mar 26). Retrieved from