Democracy in Indonesia

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Updated: Apr 14, 2020
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Democracy in Indonesia essay


Democracy is a government system made for the people, from the people, by the people . . therefore the center of democracy itself is the movement carried out by the people or the power held by the people. understanding of democracy according to experts such as;

Merriem: According to Merriem, democracy is defined as government by the people, in particular, by the majority; government where the highest power remains with the people and is carried out by them either directly or indirectly through a system of representation which is usually carried out by holding free elections held periodically; the general public especially to raise the source of political authority; the absence of class distinction or privilege based on heredity or arbitrariness.

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Hannry B. Mayo: According to Hannry B. Mayo, the notion of democracy is that public policy is determined on the basis of majority by representatives who are monitored effectively by the people in elections based on the principle of political equality and held in an atmosphere where political freedom occurs.

Democracy itself is a place that can be interpreted to be a place where people can give their opinions openly and freely convey to representatives of the people so that they can be heard and thus can improve the welfare of the Indonesian people in the future

There are 2 kinds of democracy, that is:

  • Direct democracy, which is a democratic system whereby people go directly to decisions, such as participating in elections, people participate directly and cannot be represented
  • Indirect democracy, which is a system in which, the term is represented by representatives who have been chosen or trusted by the people, in this case the decision is taken indirectly by the people but represented by those who have been appointed to represent the people.

So how is the democratic governance system running in Indonesia, can the system be said to be perfect or not? , moreover Indonesia is a country that has the most population.

Main Idea

Democracy is a government system that is created so that there is a justice in a country, the existence of sovereignty, and consensus for the welfare of the people. Indonesia is known as Democracy which has run very well in Southeast Asia. the history of democracy that Indonesia has done from time to time that has made Indonesia. In reaching this situation Indonesia has had many changes in carrying it out . Indonesia is a country that has a lot of different practices in several periods such as:

Democracy during the revolution (1945 – 1950)

During this period of democracy Indonesia was still in a limited period because it was still faced by the Dutch at that time. However, during this era Indonesia was able to create basic values, such as creating a government system, and began to form political parties.

Parliamentary democracy

This parliamentary democracy is where the election of the elected representatives is closed, where the people’s representative institutions play an important role, the fall of this system is due to Ir. Soekarno and the army who did not like the way this system worked.

Negative Impact;

  • Too focused on the political system compared to the people’s economy.
  • The number of corrupt practices that exist.
  • Government instability due to frequent changes to existing cabinets.

Positive Impact;

  • Freedom in democracy
  • An advanced industrial sector

Guided democracy

This guided democracy did not go well because of the limited role for the party, and the development of this communist and democratic influence had three elements of strength at that time namely Ir. Soekarno, the PKI and the Army, and at that time deliberation in making unfair decisions and finally this order fell due to G30S / PKI, due to the economic downturn in Indonesia .

Positive impact;

  • Able to prevent a prolonged crisis in Indonesia at that time
  • The creation of the 1945 constitution

Negative impact;

  • Many new regulations were violated
  • Appointing a president with a life term that violates the existing 1945 Constitution
  • The presence of the military involved in politics.

New Order Pancasila Democracy

Pancasila democracy is an experiment carried out by Seokarno, in this order Soekarno wants to re-establish existing laws such as human rights law, and the law of abuse of power, but like other systems this democratic system begins to show abuse of power within and not long then this system was replaced because of a crisis of trust experienced by the people .

Positive impact;

  • Decreasing poverty rates in Indonesia
  • The formation of a strong government and the role of the people in government

Negative impact;

  • The establishment of an authoritarian nature that is detrimental to society.
  • Unfair Suharto elections
  • An undemocratic policy

Reform Democracy

During this period of democracy Habibie played a very important role because of the results of his corrections to democracy that Indonesia had done. The democracy that was implemented at this time was Pancasila Democracy as well but different from what was used in the past, it has been updated, the elections that have been held and are still ongoing.

Negative impact ;

  • Rampant corruption in Indonesia.
  • Many human rights violations occur.
  • There is violence in order to create security.
  • Making democracy complicated.

Positive impact ;

  • Strong democracy in Indonesia.
  • Community role in voicing free opinions.
  • Birth of regional autonomy.

In a Democracy that has been carried out by Indonesia a lot, and finally chooses to run a reform democracy to date, the reform system that is currently being implemented is a system that I think is stable or can be said to be in a favorable condition for the Indonesian people.

Democracy in modern times can now be done anywhere like, with the availability of versatile technology, we can express all our opinions freely , but from the way this technology works alone there is also a negative side where there is false news that is easily spread and makes people often dilemma times, for example at this time there is a hashtag war . That is going on because the Indonesian presidential election is coming soon for the 2019/2024 periode. This war hashtag until now still continues in the midst of this hashtag war there are many people who express their opinions about how the results of Jokowi work during his pre-election election again like the Jokowi support community that made hashtag # 2019 remain Jokowi became known to foreign countries and # 2019 replaced supporters who are looking for deficiencies during Jokowi tenure. Democracy can be seen from the war of hashtag, that the existing democracy in the modern era is more visible to the role of the people in the formation of the State.

And in the modern era that is currently running not only Indonesian people who can voice their opinions, but the State politicians also participate in providing information that is in accordance with facts that can be observed through their own personal social account, where the public can trust the facts there is and is clearly visible. Compared to believing in possible accounts that only want to spread false news and make a split , let alone fake news that says religion which in my opinion is sensitive in Indonesia because it is a sovereign state whose contents are not only one religion and culture but various kinds. And Indonesian people in this modern era are more intelligent in terms of politics, in making a consensus decision at this time the Indonesian people can say that they make decisions in order to make the State system better in the future. But behind Indonesia’s democracy in the modern era there are still many negative sides or bad effects for the people of Indonesia themselves, and there are still many officials who are corrupt in Indonesia .

The purpose of a visible democracy is where the definition of democracy itself is from the people, by the people and for the people. Depicted in modern society at a time when those who play an important role in the running of a democratic system in Indonesia.


After the trip Indonesia tried all forms of democracy finally Pancasila democracy became the final choice. So the conclusion of whether democracy in Indonesia can be considered perfect or not in my opinion is still imperfect because there are still many negative things that happen in Indonesian democracy today. But Indonesia still has the potential to make Indonesian democracy a perfect democracy to the extent possible to minimize the negative impacts that exist today.

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Democracy in Indonesia. (2020, Apr 14). Retrieved from