Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

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Updated: Mar 14, 2023
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The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ended legal racial segregation in public schools. Montgomery Bus Boycotts(1955)-African-American woman Rosa Parks’s arrest after her refusal to move to the back of a bus triggers a citywide boycott of the bus system. Martin Luther King, Jr.: “I Have a Dream”(1963)-Martin Luther King, Jr. delivers the historic “I Have a Dream” speech. Watts Riots in Los Angeles(1965)-Beginning as a community-wide reaction to the arrest of three African-Americans in central Los Angeles, the Watts Riots continue for six days and is a key precursor to the “Black Power” movement of the late 1960’s. Equal Rights Amendment Passes in Congress(1971)-The proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was intended to explicitly guarantee equality to all persons, regardless of gender. After passing in Congress, the amendment did not receive enough votes for ratification by the individual states, and was never signed into law.

Cases of Freedom of Speech

United States v. O’Brien (1968)-The First Amendment did not protect burning draft cards in protest of the Vietnam War as a form of symbolic speech. Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)-The Court ruled that students wearing black armbands to protest the Vietnam War was “pure speech,” or symbolic speech protected by the First Amendment. Brandenburg v. Ohio (1969)-The Supreme Court held that the First and Fourteenth Amendments protected speech advocating violence at a Ku Klux Klan rally because the speech did not call for “imminent lawless action.” Cohen v. California (1971)-A California statute prohibiting the display of offensive messages violated freedom of expression. Miller v. California (1973)-This case set forth rules for obscenity prosecutions, but it also gave states and localities flexibility in determining what is obscene.

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Ashley Rodriguez

Clare Brock


The Civil Rights Movement has transformed America’s society into a color-conscious society and created the right political movement against freedom of speech today. The civil rights movement has allowed African Americans to interact with civilians, but has changed the mobility and civil rights movement in the mid-1960s by the urban riots. Movement of civil rights has helped build the institutions that defend others for their beliefs. The civil rights movement has been struggling with racial discrimination and human rights. After the slaughter of slavery in the 1860s, white used to control blacks, independence and law enforcement systems of white had difficulty separating civil rights movements. The civil rights movement requires individuals and civil rights organizations to discriminate against various acts,such as resistance, and discrimination. Many believe the movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott, and ended with the Voting Rights Acts, but many also believe that it has not ended today.

In addition to the civil rights movements , Martin Luther King , well known for his good leadership in the civil rights movement. The movement was to create individual rights for every black citizen. “Right” for example, the right to vote, Freedom of speech, and right to equal protection under the law. It’s an important historical event that allows one step closer to Black citizenship. All the goals of the civil rights movement were to ensure that blacks coincided with white people. The movement is letting them take a stand in what naturally belongs to them since birth. Which are rights that people can’t deny just on the bases of their skin color.

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Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. (2021, Jun 17). Retrieved from