Alexander the Great Biography
Born on September 20, 356 B.C. and tutored by the one and only Aristotle at a young age. Alexander took control over nearly all of the eastern Mediterranean countries within 11 years of his life. Before his father’s death in 338 B.C., he and his father conducted the Companion Cavalry and helped him demolish the Athenian and Theban Forces of Chaeronea.
With such history of crumbling empires from his father Phillip, Alexander continued his fathers deeds with skills off and on the battlefield and displaying once again control over Greece. Soon after, he lead his armies southward and his men quickly recognized him as a powerful leader and gave Alexander the unlimited military strengths to over power Persia. In 332 B.C. Darius, the ruler of Persia, tried to offer peace, but Alexander demanded that he surrender and recognize him as Lord of Asia.
Darius tried to regroup his armies, but Alexander didn’t allow him. Alexander rejected his offer, and continued to move along the Mediterranean coast. Lake Byblos and Sidon surrendered. The city of Tyre held a siege for about 7 months. Alexander had his men began to build a land bridge out to the island so he could get closer to it. Soon ships from the Rhodes, Lycia, Byblos, Sidon, and Cyprus joined his closure. Tyre and Gaza were easily captured.
In the spring of 327 B.C. Alexander moved more to the eastern side, established cities and colonies in Macedonian. He took full grasp of the invulnerable high rock strong hold of Aramiamazes and captured Bactrian prince Oxyartes. Within the following few months Alexander and his men paced through the Punjab and Indus Valley. Alexander defeated the army of king Porus. With the goodness of Alexander’s heart he redeemed Porus as king, and in return Porus gave him his loyalty. By July 327 B.C. his men and groups of ships had expanded all the way to the Indus Delta.
The next mission of Alexander was to take controls of Gaza further south of the coast where he would soon get his first injury. Alexandria was for a long time mainly dominated by the Persians. With Alexander being so well known the people there welcomed him as a Pharaoh. He then founded the first of many cities that he named for himself. It was used for most of his retired men from war in late 331 B.C.
Alexander’s army and Darius’ army met. Darius chose the location to battle in Gaugamela. With a wide and level area Darius used hystead Chariots as his tactic to try to win this war.
Alexander always thought of better and stronger military tactics and used more advanced technology in that time period than almost any emperor could ever imagine.
To over power Darius’ army Alexander’s men attacked their horses with a light spear. The ideal Greek union on the battlefield allowed them to pass through untouched, and kept their distance by using long sharp spears. Alexanders men were were able to be successful in making a hole through the middle of the enemy lines and pressured the Persian King to run away. This was another great victory for Alexander.
In almost all of Alexander’s battles, since he was out of money spent on the battle of the Granicus River, he came up with a less expensive way to conquer any land mass he and his empire wanted, which was to take away all the ports that the Persian Navy needed. This made the Persians lower their ratio of ships and men.
Between 333 and 334 B.C. Alexander and his men traveled south of coast of Lycia, were the temperature was cooler. A week later he put together his army at Gordium, the ancient capital of Phrygia. Alexander’s men then moved to the Mediterranean coast of Cilicia. He was delayed for several months, he almost died of a fever. The delay gave Persian King Darius III a moment to regroup his army. Since Darius had a larger army than Alexander’s, he wanted to battle in a open plain. Alexander wanted to fight in a narrow pass. The Persians circled behind Alexander, the two groups gathered at a narrow point on the coast at Issus in late 333 B.C. Alexander easily took control over this battle. They struck the persian royal camp, obtained loads of goods, and captured the royal family.
Alexander had unique ways of unifying his community and others around it, he and any others in Macedonia believed in hellenism. The belief of Greek polytheistic religion.
Seeing himself as King of Macedon and leader of greece. Alexander wanted to blend cultures together with Persia. So at Susa he arranged a wedding for the women and men of the Persian aristocracy. This was allowed because all Macedonians believed in having more than one wife or husband at the same time. He married two Persian women, daughters of Darius. This was so his children might have a record of a upper class Persian. Alexander held over ten thousand mixed marriages after his own. Gradually the two cultures began to fully come together.
He had my ideas to go against Arabia, the western Mediterranean, and the Caspian Sea region, but in 323 B.C. he became very sick and unable to do things for himself. He later than died at the age of 32.
During that period many people called it the Hellenistic Period because during that time the language, culture, and institutions of Greece were spread throughout the Middle East. The independent city-state that was the central area of Greece, was passed. His best generals continued to conquer areas until finally overcame by the Romans and Parthians.
In conclusion, Alexander conquered nearly all of Darius,s land. Took over all of his very important ports so that he had absolutely no resources. Then brought together the Persians and Macedonians together by letting them marry each other. All of these war tactics and ways of unifying people are still used to this very day.