A Critical Study of Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar and Environmental Ethics

CHAPTER I

Introduction

1.1 Background and Significance of the Problems

The existence and development of human world as well as the historical process of man and woman is mainly created by the public who are working with endeavor. So, the principle of human history is the people who are working. It is interesting to say that the konbaung dynasty is one of the most famous dynasty in myanmar and it was founded by alongphayr who is a village chief in 1752 to challenge the restored hanthawaddy kingdom which had just toppled the taungoo dynasty.

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it created the second-largest empire in burmese history continuing the administrative reforms begun by the toungoo dynasty. Although it laid the foundations of the modern state of burma the restructurings proved inadequate to stem the advance of the british. generally konboung dynasty has last for 150 years from the time alongphyar took control the country 1752 until the generations of his revolved against British in 1900. It was the mid of the 18 century and the first 19 century when konbaung kings influenced the neighboring countries and their authority was in peak. They were very enjoyable with their victories of war.

Buddhism was very early spread into Myanmar. Buddhist missionaries from Gangetic India who reached Upper Burma through Bengal and Manipur. Rhys Davids, supposed that Buddhism was introduced from China. It is not unlikely, however, that the Burmese obtained both their religion and their alphabet through the Talaings. The Burmese alphabet is almost the same as the Talaing, and the circular form of both strongly indicates the influence of the Singalese, or the Tamulic type of letter. The history of the country of the Talaings begins with the third Buddhist Council convened by Asoka in 309 B.C. At the conclusion of this Council, missionaries were sent forth to various countries to propagate the Religion. Mahinda was dispatched to Ceylon, and Sona and Uttara were sent to Suvannabhumi, which land both Talaing and Burmese writers agree in identifying with Thaton, the Talaing kingdom conquered by Anawrata in 1057 A.D. An account of the dispatch of these missionaries, and of the miraculous conversion of the countries visited by them is given in Mahavamsa edited by history compiled in Ceylon by Mahanama, a Buddhist Monk, in the fifth century A.D. Doubts have been expressed by European scholars as to the authenticity of this account, and there is an inclination to treat the whole tale as a monkish legend. In the inscriptions of Asoka, Ceylon is referred to only twice and no mention is made either of Suvannabhumi, or of the mission of Asoka’s son Mahinda, or of his daughter Sanghamitta . Nor have any inscriptions in the Asoka character been found at Thaton or Pagan, whither it is supposed the Burmese conquerors removed their spoils of war.

Suvannabhumi as one of the countries situated to the north-east of India. That the Islands between China and India are the Islands of the Zabaj, called by the Hindus, Suvarnadvipa, “because you obtained much gold as deposit if you wash only a little of the earth of that country.

The conversion of a country to a foreign religion is necessarily the result of a long and continued intercourse, and of sustained and strenuous missionary effort; and the statement in the Mahavamsa that, on the arrival of Sona and Uttara in Suvannabhumi, 6o,ooo people suddenly embraced the new faith, that 2,500 men and 1,500 women were admitted into the Order may be summarily dismissed as beyond the range of credibility. Judging, however, by the splendid ruins of Cambodia, and the numerous Sanskrit Inscriptions found there it seems to be highly probable that the Kingdom was the chief radiating centre of Buddhism in Indo-China, and that the expansion of its power to Thaton and Malaya was accompanied by the spread of Buddhist influences. Cambodian sovereignty in the Salween valley lasted till the eleventh century and Cambodian influences in the valleys of the Salween and Irrawaddy ceased with the foundation of the kingdom of Siam in 1350 A. D. It may, therefore, be safely assumed that the religious traditions of the Cambodians, regarding especially the introduction of Buddhism, were inherited by the Siamese as well as the Talaings, by whom they were passed on to the Burmese.

At the same time, Burmese writers are not willing to acknowledge their indebtedness to the Talaings, whom they had conquered, for their knowledge of Buddhism. They say that Sunaparanta, the classic name of their country, should be identified with Aparantaka; That the Buddha himself visited Sunaparanta during his life-time, and there established his Religion; and that, at the end of the Third Council, missionaries were sent to Aparantaka to propagate the Faith. They add that, as early as 443 B.C., Buddhism was established at Prome as attested by the ancient Pagodas still in existence, and that, if they are at all beholden to the Talaings, the revival of the faith is certainly due to the Buddhist scriptures brought from Thaton to Pagan in the 11th century A.D. The establishment of Buddhism at Prome in the 5th century B. C., cannot as yet be proved or disproved, because the ruins of that ancient capital have not been systematically explored; nor can Burma’s claim to be identified with Aparantaka be admitted. That Aparantaka is the konkan of the present day. “Aparantaka” means the”Western Country” and cannot, by any stretch of imagination, be identified with Burma, whose relative position towards India prima facie vitiates the identification.

If, before the foundation of Pagan in the second century A. D., Buddhism prevailed at Prome, it appears to have been of the Southern School, which was probably corrupted, later on, by the tenets of the Northern School as well as by Saivaism and Vaishnavaism. Burmese history relates that,on the accession of Thaiktaing, the 13th King of Pagan, who began his reign in 513 A.D., the Naga-worship, with the Aris as its priests, arose at Pagan. It lasted for over five centuries, till it was finally suppressed by Anawrata. There is not much information available about the Aris or the system of faith taught by them. About the same period, i.e., 6th century A. D., in Northern India, Buddhism had lost its vigour of expansion and Indian Buddhists had migrated to China and neighbouring countries. Buddhism itself had been corrupted by the Tantric system, which is a mixture of magic, witchcraft and Siva-worship; and this Tantric Buddhism apparently percolated into Burma through Bengal, Assam and Manipur, and allied itself with the Northern School prevailing at Pagan. Indeed, Wilson observes in the preface to his Vishnu Purana: “it is a singular and as yet, uninvestigated, circumstance that Assam, or at least the northeast of Bengal seems to have been, in a great degree, the source from which the Tantrika and Sakta corruptions of the religion of the Vedas and Puranas proceeded.” All that we know about these priests is that they called themselves ‘Aris’ or ‘Ariya,’— the ‘Noble’ that their robes were dyed with indigo.

“Buddhism began to decay soon after the commencement of the Christian Era. In 400 A. D., when Fa Hian visited India, he found Buddhism still flourishing, though scarcely maintaining its ground. Hiouen Thsang. who visited India two centuries later, found Buddhism at a very low ebb. In the 8th and 9th centuries, a great persecution arose, and Buddhism, was expelled from India.

Under Burmese Rule, three percent of the population of Upper Burma, including the Cis-Salween Shan States, were pongyis (monks) and in Mandalay itself there were 13,227 members of the Order or about eight percent, of the total population.

The Fourth Buddhist Council in Kashmir in the first century of the Christian era, had the Tripitaka arranged in Sanskrit, and did for the Northern School what Asoka had done for the Southern. Further, terra-cotta tablets bearing Sanskrit legends have been found at Pagan and Tagaung; marked preference Shewn for the Sanskritic form of certain words in the Buddhist books of Burma. The most remarkable fact, however, is the existence in the Burmese language of words importing terms in religion, mythology, science and social life, which are derived directly from Sanskrit. In the domain of religion, the Burmese always employ partially Sanskrit forms like Dhammacakra, Sariputtara, Kramma, Sakra, and Samuddara, instead of the Pali forms, Dhammacakka, the wheel of Law; Sariputta, the right-hand disciple of Buddha; Kamma, the principle of Karma; Sakka, the Recording Angel of Buddhism; and Samudda, the ocean. This fact and the internal evidence afforded by the Inscriptions of Pagan appear to indicate:-

  • that the form of Buddhism first introduced into Burma proper was that of the Mahayana or Northern School
  • that the Buddhist Scriptures when first introduced were written in Sanskrit, which is the language of the Northern School;
  • that the Southern school or Hinayana, the language of whose Scriptures is Pali, subsequently absorbed and assimilated, by its stronger vitality, the Northern School, which, through intermingling with the Tantric doctrine of Assam.

     

    There are two words in the Burmese language, which, above, all, seem to point to religious intercourse both with Tibet and Nipal. The Pali word ‘ bhikkhu,’ a monk, always appears in Burmese as ‘pongyi’ or ‘rahan ‘. Now th…e word ‘pongyi’ is evidently connected with ‘bonze’, a priest of the Bon religion of Shamanism, which still prevails in Eastern and Southern Tibet, with which Burma must have had frequent intercourse in prehistoric times, and the Burmese word must be referred to the Tibetan compound made up of ‘Bon’, the Bon religion . Again, the word ‘rahan’ can only be referred to Arhana or ‘Arhanta’ under which designation monks are known in Nipal. These two words, ‘pongyi’ and ‘rahan’ must have already been in the Burmese language before the word ‘bhikkhu’ was introduced together with the Pali Tripitaka in the eleventh century A.D. The latter may be a Bhikshu, Sravaka, Chailak or Sakyavamsika (Sakya-puttiya); he is bound for only ten days by the primitive rules of the Order, is then released from them, and marries though tonsured. Ostensibly he is a monk, but really he is a layman.

    At Pagan, the primitive system of faith was the Bon religion with its animistic worship and devil-dancing. The Burmese Pantheon of the 37 Nats, whose images are in the Shwezigon Pagoda at Pagan, only dates from the reign of Thinligyaung (344-387 A.D.) The Bon religion was superseded by the Mahayana School with its Sanskrit Scriptures, which, in its turn, had to give way, in the sixth century A. D. to the Tantric system with its immoral professors, the Aris and the form of Naga-worship. It was not till the 11th century A.D., that the Hinayana doctrine of the Southern School was introduced from Thaton. Possibly, there was also an admixture of Jainism, Saivaism and Vaishnavaism. Vaishnava temples have been discovered at Pagan, and traces of the Siva cult have been found at Prome and in Arakan.

    The stratification of these various systems of faith can only be elucidated by the exploration of ancient ruins in Assam and Manipur, the excavation of ancient sites in Burma, and a close study of the architecture, sculpture, and frescoes at Pagan. The frequent political upheavals and the exterminating wars between Burma and the adjacent countries have, in a great measure, obliterated the chief landmarks of religious and ecclesiastical history, and no satisfactory account can be obtained from native records alone.

    Burma received her Buddhist impulse, not from the adjacent province of Kuangtung, where Buddha is called ‘Fat’, nor from the maritime Province, where the Amoy dialect is spoken, in which the Sage is called ‘Put’, but from some Province, most probably, Yunnan, Szechuan or Central China, where the Mandarin dialect was spoken, the evolution of this last dialect being ascribed to the period 300-900 A.D., when old Chinese intermingled with the languages of the Tartar tribes.

    The introduction of the eras, now in use among the Burmans, constitutes one of the principal landmarks in the history of Buddhism in Burma; but native records are silent as to the reasons for their introduction. There are two eras in use, and are both of exotic origin: the Era of Religion or Anno Buddhae, reckoned by the Burmans from 544 B.C., and the Vulgar Era or Sakkaraj. The earlier era used in Burma seems to have been the Era of Religion. It was abolished by Samundari, King of Prome.

    In this sketch of Buddhism we must not omit a reference to Buddhaghosa, the great scholar and divine, who was the reputed apostle of Buddhism to Burma. Talaing historians claim him to be their fellow-countryman and state that he crossed over to Ceylon in 402 A. D., and thence brought back to Thaton a complete set of the Tripitaka together with its commentaries. This claim is vitiated by the Mahavamsa and other Sinhalese records, which say that he visited Ceylon during the reign of Mahanama (412-434 A. D.) and that he returned, not to Thaton, but to ‘Jambudipa, to worship at the Bo-tree at Uruvela in Magadha. Further, the Kalyani Inscription erected by Dhammaceti, King of Pegu, in 1476 A. D is absolutely silent regarding the celebrated Buddhist divine. If the story about Buddhaghosa’s advent to Thaton be historically true, the event would have been considered to be an important epoch and would certainly have been mentioned in this inscription. It gives a resume of the vicissitudes of Buddhism in Burma and Ceylon. Considering that the identification with the Suvannabhumi of the ancients has been urged in favour of three countries, namely, Ramannadesa, the Malay Peninsula, and Cambodia. One cannot help being sceptical as to the historical accuracy of the account relating to the mission of Buddhaghosa to Thaton. Such scepticism becomes somewhat confirmed, when it is borne in mind that there is no paleographical affinity between the Talaing and Sinhalese alphabets and that Cambodian writers affirm that the great divine came to their country. The influences exerted by China, Tibet, Nipal, Magadha, Assam, Manipur and Cambodia on the one hand, have to be distinguished from those exerted by Southern India and Ceylon.

    Past history is the lessons for present and present is for future ones. Without studying history, one cannot understand the real situation of country and people. History actualy cannot give us a program for the future, but it can give us a fuller understanding of ourselves, and our common community. According to the saying of Robert Penn Warren, it cannot be deniable that studying history of country or religion can make people understand the good and bad beneficiaries of history concerned and they are managed to construct their lives better for their future. The topic I have chosen for my Ph.D degree is focus on the historical research concerning with Konbaung dyanasty which is one of the most famous historical evidences on Theravada Buddhism in Mynamar.

    When studying the historical background of Konbaung dynasty in brief, there appears the problems and research questions as follow: How did the Buddhism relate with Konbaung dynasty? Is Buddhism really flourished in Myanmar and especially in that period? How did Buddhism spread and flourish in that period? Why did Konbaung heirs conclude under British? In what way did it influence the people in Myanmar in the field of environmental ethics?

    1.2 Objectives of the research

    It is undeniable that to study history of Burma is nothing but to study the history of the Theravada Buddhism. This trend could be seen in Theravada Buddhism exercised on the life of the Burmese people in the past or in the present. The projected study foucus on history of Burma and the role of Burmese Sangha, monks known as Theravada Buddhism. The objectives of studying Konbaung dynasty are as under:

    1. To give the policy on the strategy of several dynasties in Burma to apply the Theravada Buddhism as the official religion in the country.
    2. To know the role of the last dynasty in the history of Burma in the propagation of the Theravada Buddhism.
    3. To analyze why and how the kings and the subjects paid their respects and supported to their religion.
    4. To emphasize the role of Buddhist monks in the history of Burma and their contribution to education and moral values of society.
    5. To analyze the social background in which Theravada Buddhim influenced and how Theravada Buddhism moulds the life of Burmese people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, politic at the time of Konbaung Dynasty.

    1.3 Statement of the Problems Desired to know

    There is a problem in Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar and environmental ethics of Konbaung dynasty. Despite expressing the historical background of that period by most scholars, there is rarely provide how Buddhism is related with environmental ethics. This problem has negatively affected the people and country because it is not completed in the historical field. A possible cause of this problem is that they are difficult to collect the data with original language. Perhaps a study which investigates Konbaung dynasty by a historical method could help resolve the situation.

    1.4 Scope of the Research

    Even though there are a lot of evidences and references for the fact concerning with Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar, it is here limited the field of Buddhism in Konbaung dynasty from 1752-1885 because of the time limit. Since time frame is limited, the primary data cannot be going to the field. The analyses are made according to the data collected from secondary data in this study. The key findings and suggestions are forecast viewing these data expressed from ancient to modern days.

    1.5 Research Hypotheses

    The Konbaung dynasty contributed significantly for unification of Burma and advancement of its civilization. This study suggests that the domination of the Konbaung dynasty was appreciably facilitated by Buddhism, which cemented the relationship between the rulers and ruled at one level and among Burmese people at another level. The Konbaung dynasty attempted to create Burmese society based upon the strict principles of the Theravada Buddhism. This study is also proposing that Buddhism developed high popularity during the Konbaung dynasty and extended active patronage to Buddhism and monastic system.

    1.6 Definition of the Terms Used in the Research

    The terms of the key words and phrases refer to concepts at the core of one’s study and concepts that must be unmistakable in conducting research with proper care and if the procedures and outcomes are to be properly understood by your reading audience. To illustrate key words of this research are as follows:

    • Theravada Buddhism- it is believed to be the genuine doctrine of the Lord Buddha who has established the foundation of Theravada in Aparihaniyadesana.
    • Konbaung dynastry- it means the period from king Alongphaya to king Thipaw (1752-1885)
    • Environmental ethics – the term is concerned with environment of Myanmar people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, politic at the time of Konbaung Dynasty.

    1.7 Review of Related Literature and Research Works

    By the time we study the history of Burma and Buddhism, we found that Chronicles of Burma were written for one or several of the following reasons:

    • to inaugurate the fact that Buddhism reached to Burma during the life time of the Buddha;
    • to preserve that the Kings at several old capitals of Burma were the direct descendants of Mahasamata, the great king;
    • to record the father to son heritage of kingship among the Burmese kings;
    • to compile local histories with undisguised effort to attach importance to each locality as it has been founded by either a princely or saintly person;
    • to recollect what meritorious deeds were done by each king who styled himself as the upholder of the religion;
    • to praise the achievement of successful monarchs so that the future kings could follow their example.

    Therefore the chronicle is a traditional way of writings the past of Buddhist countries such as Sri Lanka and Burma and constitute a strong historical tradition. The Dipavamsa, the Sinhalese chronicle, claims that King Ashoka sent Buddhist missions to nine places and Suvannabhum in and Lankadipa were among them. The Mahavamsa which is Sinhalese chronicle, illustrates these facts in great detail. The Burmese chronicles followed suit. Suvannabhumi was identified as Thaton or Tikekala situated in Mon State in Burma. King Ramadhipati (popularly known as Dhammaceti) of Pegu (now Bago) in his Kalyani Sima inscription (A.C 1480) traced the beginning of Buddhism in lower Burma to Venerable Sona and Uttara mission of 309 B.C. The story prove the arrival of Buddhism in Burma back to the 4th century B.C. We do have some archeology based studies of Buddhism in Burma before or after the Bagan and Early Bagan periods.

    1.8 Conceptual Framework

    Even though the projected study aims to trace the history of the Konbaung dynasty in Burma, the particular focus has been devoted to the religion especially the Theravada Buddhism. The ethics of the Theravada Buddhism deeply influenced the way Burmese people live. The proposed study attempts to trace the process of emergence of the Theravada Buddhism as a dominant mode of religion and a way of life in Burma especially in the Konbaung dynasty.

    The proposed study is not a narrative of the history the Theravada Buddhism perse, rather attempt has been made to explore how the socio-economic and cultural process of Burma intertwined with Buddhism. In other words, this study is an ethno-historical study of religion of Burma. This approach is useful in understanding the factors that condition and mold the life patterns of a community or a nation. In case of Venezuela historian, Bereta Perez proposes that history is a complicated domain that touches everyday life of the nation in a critical way. In case of India, Nicolas Dricks used the framework of ethohistory to construct the political history of South Indian dynasty. By using the similar framework the proposed study attempts to document the evolution of the Theravada Buddhism and its impact upon the Burmese civilization in the past and present.

    1.9 Research Methodology

    The projected study is an attempt to document the history of Burma and Theravada Buddhism in Konbaung dynasty. History is a study of the past events concerned with the development of a particular place. Every nation has its historical background,so Burma, one of the countries in the world had been standing with their own kings in their past for centuries. The original sources written mainly in Burmese language as well as English are applied and historical data have been gleaned as possible as reach to our knowledge. Apart from the original sources other methods such as comparative, historical, textual, inscriptions, archeological excavation, royal orders, reports and scientific have been utilized for the present work and rational thinking has been applied to clarify the facts. Apparently most of the historical sources on the Konbaung dynasty and Theravada Buddhism in Burma are available in Burmese language. Keeping this limitation into consideration, the proposed study attempts to use verities of historical sources available in Burmese language such court chronicles of the Konbaung dynasty, books written in Burmese language on Theravada Buddhism, inscriptions, and officials sources of Burmese government such as gazetteers have been used to explore and document the contribution of the Konbaung dynasty for promotion of the Theravada Buddhism and its impact upon the socio-economic, cultural and civilizational process of Burma.

    1.10 Advantages Expected to Obtain from the Research

    It is generally believed that Buddhism prospered in the Konbaung Period. This research is written to determine whether this view is correct using Primary and secondary sources in writing this dissertation. By studying this dissertation, it can be obtained the following advantages as follows;

    1. One can realize Buddhism in Myanmar
    2. One can understand the policy on the strategy of several dynasties in Burma to apply the Theravada Buddhism as the official religion in the country.
    3. One can distinguish the role of First Konbaung Dynasty, the last dynasty in the history of Burma in the propagation of the Theravada Buddhism.
    4. One analyze why and how the kings and the subjects paid their respects and supported to their religion, Theravada Buddhism.
    5. One can receive the knowledge on how Theravada Buddhism influenced the life of Burmese people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, politic at the time of Konbaung Dynasty.

    1.11 Brief chapterisation

    In my present work is divided in to five chapters as follows:

    • Chapter –I
    • Introduction
    • Chapter-II
    • Life of the Buddha and Brief introduction to Buddhism
    • Chapter-III
    • Historical background of Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar
    • Chapter-IV
    • Theravada Buddhism in Konbaung Period (1752-1885)
    • Chapter-V
    • Environmental ethics of Theravada Buddhism in Konbaung Period
    • Chapter –VI
    • Conclusion
    • Bibliography

    The first chapter, introduction consists of systematic introduction of the topic, objectives, hypothesis, methodology, context of study, review of literature and mention of sources and conceptual framework of thesis.

    Chapter two will describe the life of the Buddha and brief introduction to Buddhism which shows the starting place of Buddhism and the ways to liberation from Samsara, the circle of birth and death for the follwers of Buddhsim as well as the key Suttas for Buddhist people.

    Chapter three will describe the historical context of Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar. Concerning the introduction of Buddhism into Myanmar, the views of the different scholars will be shown. The earliest form of Buddhism that arrived in Myanmar was a pure form of Theravada Buddhism is discussed. It is is analyzed that the Myanmars came into contact with Buddhism only after Aniruddha’s conquest of Thaton. Moreover, how the aris, who were disparaged in the Myanmar chronicles, did not appear in the early Pagan period, but appeared only in the later Pagan period and how they were powerful even in the post-Pagan periods and how no Myanmar King had ever stamped out the aris are discussed. How some kings were unable to carry through their reforms because they were not accepted by monks and laypersons is also explained.

    Chapter four deals with Theravada Buddhism in Konbaung period (1752-1885)

    This chapter discusses the summary on the background of Kongaung dynasty and restructiongs of Kongaung, following religious activities of Konbaung kings, how Atin ayon problem which was disputed for many years was resoluted, how King Badon attempted to push through religious reforms after studying Buddhism himself. It aslo points out how the king had to support the Buddhism. Moreover, how the original purpose of the religious examinations, held with a view to promoting the Pariyatti Sasana was lost is discussed and how the Tipitaka texts were inscribed on stone slabs and the Fifth Buddhist Synod was convened in King Mindon’s reign. It is explained in this chapter that the Religion of Konbaung Period was not more orthodox than that in other periods,that the kings who were supposed to be purifying the Religion were still relying on occult practices. And, How the Thathanabyu Thathanazaunt Committee was formed for forcing monks to follow the Vinaya rules are discussed in this chapter.

    Chapter five discuss on the environmental ethics of Theravada Buddhism in Konbaung period. In this chapter, it is explained that how Theravada Buddhism influenced the life of Burmese people in their daily life in social, education, administration, economics, culture, architecture, literature, politic and law at the time of Konbaung Dynasty. Social classes, sumptuary laws, demography and so on are aslo discussed following universal ethics such as five precepts and noble eightfold path. Besides those mentioned above, how Konbaung was administrated based on Ten R?jacarita dhamma, four Sangaha vatthu, seven Aparih?niya dhamma. It will aslo discussed the judicial syatem of Konbaung, Rajathat as well as Dhamathat in Konbaung. Criminal cases and Legal cases involving Buddhist monks are also emphasizly written in this chapter.

    In chapter six, conclusion, it has been drown conclusion regarding the whole my dissertation. It will summarize the main points of the whole carrier of my dissertation.

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