Sigismund Scholmo Freud, known as Sigmund Freud, was an Austrian neurologist who created a new approach to the understanding of the human personality. He is largely credited with establishing the field of verbal psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.
Sigmund Freud was born in May 6, 1856 in Moravian town of Freiberg, in the Austrian empire, now Pribor, Czech Republic, to a Galician Jewish Parents. His father Jakob Freud, was a merchant. The family moved to Leipzig and then settled in Vienna, where Freud was educated.
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In 1873, at the age of 17, Freud had planned to study law, but he started to study medicine at the University of Vienna.
After graduating in 1882, Freud began his medical career, he worked at the Vienna General Hospital. In 1885, Freud went to Paris as a student of the neurologist Jean Charcot. On his return to Vienna the following year, Freud set up in private practice, specializing in nervous and brain disorders. The same year he married Martha Bernays, with whom he had six children. In 1902, Freud was appointed Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna, a post he held until 1938 when he left Vienna for London with his wife and daughter Anna, after the Nazis annexed Austria.
Originally trained as a neurologist, Freud is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, dreams, infantile sexuality, libido, repression, and transferences, all of which continue to influence the field of psychology to varying degrees. Freud’s account of the mind’s structure id, ego, and superego, led to a new understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of psychological disturbance.
Freud developed the theory that humans have an unconscious in which sexual and aggressive impulses are in perpetual conflict for supremacy with the defenses against them. In 1897, he began an intensive analysis of himself. In 1900, his major work ‘The Interpretation of Dreams’ was published in which Freud analyzed dreams in terms of unconscious desires and experiences.
Freuds theories play a big role in psychology today. Many psychologists like Freud believe that events in childhood have a great influence on our adult lives. An example of Freuds work would be the case of Anna O. Anna O suffered from a condition called hysteria. She did not express her anxiety until later during psychoanalysis. When she was given the opportunity to make these unconscious thoughts conscious, her paralysis disappeared. Freud referred to this treatment as the “talking cure”. In many ways, psychologists do just that, listen and assist the patient to rationalize their own thoughts. He proposed that the physical symptoms are often a result from a mental event.
Another theory that is well known and has received many critiques, is the mind and the three levels which are Id, Ego, and Super Ego, which were described as essential in human personality and mental functions. The ego develops from the id during infancy. The ego’s goal is to satisfy the id in a social way. The ego operates conscious and unconsciously. The superego develops during early childhood and is responsible for moral standards. The superego functions on the morals and motivates us to behave in a socially accepted manner. Then 3 different egos are in constant debate when in becomes to decision making and socially acceptable actions.
Although some of his theories were over the top, psychology and theory is really varied on opinion and study. The average patient seeking treatment of a mild to moderate case of non- psychotic condition might not be a good candidate for a Freudian approach. With the development of several theories of the human personality, Freud is not the only one with validity. The study of the brain and human emotion whether is developmental, biological, chemical, or structured, must continue to be tested as the theory of human personality is never ending nor correct until the next theory arises.
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