What is Learning
Learning can be defined as a relatively permanent influence on a person’s knowledge, thinking and behaviour. However, not everything that we know is learnt, some knowledge is inborn or inherits, e.g. the culture of blinking when something comes close to your eyes. Behaviorism is a concept that behaviour should be seen, heard or observed. It can be verbal or non-verbal, e.g. A student playing with another student. Cognitive approaches to learning include social cognitive approach emphasized how environmental factors, behavioural factors and a person affect their learning. Another Cognitive approach is Information Processing, where it highlights on how children process information through thinking, paying attention and memory.
The Cognitive Constructivist Approach to learning states that after a child solves a problem and discovers the consequences of their deeds, they will construct their knowledge or understanding. The final Cognitive approach is The Social Constructivist which entails teaming with others to produce knowledge and understanding. One of the behaviours that I engage includes, holding my mouth when yawning. This is not an inherent knowledge but has to be taught and adopted.Praxis practice1) Sneezing is not part of learning, 2) Mr Zeller mode of learning is behaviouralPavlov’s Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is an automatic type of learning whereby a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was initially elicited by neutral stimuli. In a natural situation where food (UCS) would make a dog salivate (UCR), Pavlov’s in an experiment introduced neutral stimuli.
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He rang a bell (CS) just before giving the dog food, in time the dog would hear the bell and start salivating (CR) even before seeing the food. Generalization involves a introducing a new Conditioning Stimuli which is closely related to the existing stimuli and achieving the same result. In Pavlov??™s experiment he noticed that a sound similar to the bell such as whistling gave the same effect. Discrimination arises where the orgasm is subjected to a particular stimuli only, such that it won’t respond to any other stimuli.
Extinction in a classic conditioning transpires where the conditioned response is weakened by the absence of the Unconditioned stimulus, e.g. in Pavlov experiment he rang the bell several times without giving the dog food. Eventually, the dog stopped salivating at the bells sound. Systematic desensitization is a method based on the classic conditioning that reduces anxiety or phobia via substituting a deep relaxation response to the conditional stimulus by successive visualizations using counter conditioning. Operant Conditioning is a form of learning where behaviour is controlled by consequences. A Reinforcement is a consequence that decreases the probability a behaviour will occur. There are two types of reinforcements positive and negative. In a positive support, there is rewarding/positive stimulus and thus increasing the frequency of response. In negative reinforcement, however, the rate of a response increases due to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
Generalization in Operant Conditioning means issuing the same response to similar stimuli. Discrimination in operant conditioning means differentiating among environmental events or stimuli, e.g. a student doing chemistry practice is supposed to enter a room marked “Chemistry Lab” and not a room marked “Computer Lab”. In operant conditioning, extinction is when a previously reinforced response is withdrawn making the reaction to decreasing. My emotions are a result of both Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning since in discrimination if a teacher compliments me in Classical I shall be inclined to work even harder, and the same case for Operant.`