The Disorder that is ADHD
The disorder known as ADHD is an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. It is estimated that 8.4% of children and 2.5% of adults are known to have ADHD. This disorder is often identified during the early school days of children. The common symptoms for ADHD include: not paying close attention to details or making careless mistakes on a work task, having problems focusing on certain tasks or activities (such as lectures, conversations, or long readings), and not following or completing schoolwork and job duties. In, 1902 ADHD was first identified by a man named Sir George Still. He reported the disorder as “an abnormal defect of moral control in children. By the 1930s a man named Dr. Charles Bradley came across some unexpected side effects to the medicine Benzedrine. By, the 1990s the reported number of ADHD cases grew significantly because researchers could diagnose the disorder more effectively. And more parents were aware of ADHD and its symptoms. Looking at this disorder from the perspective of the four D’s, deviance, dysfunction, distress, and danger as well as optional D duration. Looking at ADHD from the perspective of deviance ADHD follows suit. Deviance, in psychology, means any behavior that is conflicting to the norms of society. ADHD causes the person to be easily distracted and have the inability to focus which can cause the person to perform abnormal actions like squirming in your seat or fidgeting with your hands or feet. Looking at ADHD from the perspective of dysfunction ADHD also falls into this category. Dysfunction, in psychology, is referring to the lack of function in a person’s cognition, emotions, or behavior. As stated before, ADHD causes the inability to focus which can interfere with the everyday function of the average person. Looking at ADHD from the perspective of distress ADHD follows in the same way that it follows the category of dysfunction. As for the perspective of danger, ADHD isn’t serious enough to in danger the person’s life. (unless it’s the person’s social life which is a concern). Duration really comes into the game when the disorder affects the individual’s emotions or behaviors.
Which, of course, ADHD does affect. Seeing ADHD in a different light is through the four F’s which are: fighting, fleeing, feeding and fornicating (mating). While ADHD is known to be caused by an underdeveloped frontal lobe. So when it comes to fighting or fleeing this disorder could cause the individual to overreact in certain situations and sometimes the reaction can be violent. As for feeding and mating, ADHD doesn’t play a vital role or influencer in those situations. Now, when it comes to a test diagnosing ADHD there isn’t a single test. Often the doctor will rely on many things such as questionnaires and rating scales as well as watching the child and taking interviews from parents, teachers, and relatives. Doctors know that if a kid has ADHD recording information from a there everyday lifestyle and habits. The most common way of treating this disorder is through medications. Medication for ADHD comes in two types: stimulant and non-stimulant. The stimulants are called central nervous system stimulants (CNS). The drugs work by increasing the amount of dopamine and norepinephrine which are used to improve the individual’s concentration and focus. Common examples of this drug are amphetamine-based stimulants (Adderall, Dexedrine, Dextrostat), dextromethamphetamine (Desoxyn), dexmethylphenidate (Focalin), and methylphenidate (Concerta, Daytrana, Metadate, Ritalin). Non-stimulant medication work to increase the norepinephrine in the brain. This is supposed to help with the individual’s attention span and memory. These treatments include atomoxetine (Strattera), antidepressants like nortriptyline (Pamelor). Each medication is used to help balance the neurochemistry in the individual. There is a multitude of research going towards the understanding of ADHD. Some current research includes national surveys which are used to find out the number of people with ADHD, concerns they might go experience, as well as the treatment they might receive.
The research also goes to policy research. Policy research is research going towards understanding the disorder to develop policies that affect how treatments are approved and reimbursed by health plans. There are many methods that are used to help identify whether a person has AD methods include surveys or observation of the patient. One example of this is through the method of behavioral ratings. This method is accomplished by the parent and/or guardian having a conversation with the patients’ doctor, and the doctor will provide information about the signs and symptoms to look at for in the patient’s everyday life. If the parent or guardian does find at least three common constant symptoms within the child, then the doctor can give a proper diagnosis. This method could also be given to the teachers when monitoring their students. ADHD is a difficult disorder to live with. The disorder causes abnormal behavioral responses which can lead to questions of responsibilities. For this how do not share or are not self-aware of this disorder are known to be accused of laziness and making excuses, but for those who are aware and do share their disorder do often take responsibility for their actions and make amends for any offenses.