Soccer and Goalies
In the game of soccer, the objective is to score as many goals as possible (more than the opposing team) by the end of the ninety-minutes in order to win the game. If there is a tie at the end of the ninety minutes, depending on the situation, the referee will either declare it a tie, add additional time (also known as stoppage time), or the game will go into penalty kicks.
Components of the Field
In terms of the basics, the game is played on a rectangular field. There are several components that make-up the playing field.
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How it works
For starters, each soccer field should have two goal boxes at opposite sides of the field. Then there should be a penalty box outside of both goal boxes. Within the goal and penalty boxes, there are two dot-looking formations that align with the middle of the goal and penalty boxes that are called the penalty spots. This is where a player puts the soccer ball when they are about to shoot a penalty kick. On the outside of the penalty boxes, there are two small arcs facing the center field that are called the penalty arcs. This is where the majority of free-kicks occur, as well as the area in between the penalty arc and the halfway line. Towards the middle of the field, there is a line that goes straight down vertically which is called the halfway-line. There is a large circle that is within the halfway line, which is called the center circle. Within the center circle, there is a small dot called the center spot. This is where kick-offs take place (kick-offs either start the game at the very beginning of the first and second half or happens after every goal that is scored). Lastly, on ever corner of the field, there are even smaller arcs that are called the corner arcs. The dimensions of the field are dependent on the level of play (i.e. high school, professional).
During the game, coaches are allowed to play eleven soccer players. These eleven players include goalkeepers, sweepers, defenders, midfielders, and forwards. The rules are that if a team plays more than eleven players, or less than eleven players, then the teams cannot start the game. However, to ensure that every player on the team is able to play, those who are not considered starters can be substituted into the game by their coach.
To simply the rules of the game, players cannot use their hands unless they are the goalie. The ball is meant to be passed and kicked to their teammates using their feet.
Each game consists of two forty-five minute halves with a fifteen-minute period in between during halftime.
The soccer ball has to be a certain size and weight which is dependent on age group, club, university, or professional requirements. In other words, it would not be necessary for a U10 team (10 and under) to be playing with a size 5 soccer ball which is what U18, collegiate and professionals play with.
Each game has to have a referee who dictates what is either a penalty or is not a penalty, and they are the one’s who enforce the rules of the game. In addition to having referees, there are two other referees who stand on the outside of the field. Also known as linesmen, their jobs are to run along the outside of the out-of-bounds line and make calls that the official referee cannot see or identify. Referees are also the officials who players either yellow cards or red cards.
In the game of soccer, a yellow card is considered to be a warning, and a red card is considered to be an ejection from the game. Players can get either card depending on the magnitude of the foul or misconduct. Referees have the jurisdiction over what classifies as a foul or misconduct. In addition to this, Referees also have jurisdiction over what classifies as a free-kick or a penalty kick, and can call off-sides as well.
Generally, if a foul occurs inside the penalty box then a penalty kick is given to the other the other team. On the contrary, if a foul occurs outside of the penalty box then a free-kick is given to the other team. Off-sides can occur if a player of the opposing team becomes closer to the goal line than the soccer ball and the last defender on the opposite side of the field.
Going back to the components of the field, if the soccer ball crosses the line that is adjacent to the goal box, then a goal-kick is initiated. If the soccer ball goes out-out-bounds towards the halfway line or the outside of the penalty box, then throw-ins are initiated. If the ball goes out of bounds by the corner arcs, then corner kicks are initiated.
In terms of equipment, the uniform is generally the same across all teams, leagues, and clubs. Players are required to wear color-coordinated tops and shorts that represent their respective team. Players have to wear shin guards under their socks and have to wear cleats as well. However, metal cleats are always prohibited.
One of the main differences between these two training methods is that the presence of the ball during small-sided games allows the concomitant improvement of technical and tactical skills and enhances motivation of players (Flanagan & Merrick, 2002). Additionally, if running drills without the ball are used to improve endurance capacities, players will need extra practice time to improve their technical skills (Hoff, Wisl??ff, Engen, Kemi, & Helgerud, 2002)
SSGT versus CAIT
Many authors investigated the effects of smallsided game training (SSGT) and conventional aerobic interval training (CAIT) on soccer-specific physical performance (Ferrari Bravo, et al., 2008; Helgerud, et al., 2001; Hill-Haas, Coutts, Rowsell, & Dawson, 2009; Impellizzeri, et al., 2006; Radziminski, Rompa, Barnat, Dargiewicz, & Jastrzebski, 2013). These studies have shown that each type of training method has the potential to improve players’ aerobic endurance.
Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1
The Yo-Yo IR1 test was performed as described by Krustrup et al. (2003). The audio cues for the Yo-Yo IR1 were recorded on a CD (Teknosport).
Anaerobic Threshold Test
An incremental treadmill running test was applied to identify the running velocity (vOBLA) and heart rate (OBLAHR) that corresponded to the fixed blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol?·L-1. Specifically, in this test, the initial running speed was eight km?·h-1, and the treadmill grade was set at 1%.
Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (LSPT)
To obtain an objective measure of short-passing ability, the first version of the LSPT was used
Offensive and defensive skills
The players participated in two 11-a-side friendly matches that were played with no substitutions on the same surface area (105x70m).
Offensive skills in SSGT
The notational analysis system (explained in the section Offensive and defensive skills in the matches) was also used to evaluate offensive skills executed in the SSGTs in order to emphasize importance of work with the ball
Wide midfielders were found to have better aerobic power than central defenders and attackers in a study using the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test . These positional differences in aerobic power are in agreement with corresponding differences during match play, where it has been noticed that midfielders cover larger distances than defenders
Sit-and-reach test (sAr)
To evaluate low back and hamstring flexibility, the sAr was performed using a box with a measuring scale in cm with 15 cm at the level of the feet [10
Physical working capacity at a heart rate (Hr) of 170 bpm (PWC170)
The participants completed the PWC170 test, consisting of three 3-min consecutive stages of cycling at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 W? kg–1 on an 828E cycle ergometer (Monark, sweden) .
Isometric muscle strength
Isometric strength testing was performed for right handgrip, left handgrip, back, and back/leg strength
Force–velocity test (F–V)
The F–V test consisted of four sprints, each lasting 7 s and interspersed by 5 min recovery periods, against an incremental braking force (2, 3, 4, and 5 kg) on an 874E cycle ergometer (Monark, sweden) .
Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT)
This test  was performed on the same ergometer as the F–V test.
Interestingly, although not statistically significant, we noticed a trend of possible positional differences with regards to muscle power output. The largest positional difference in power (W) was observed in the F–V test (goalkeepers vs. midfielders ~135 W), where the highest score was achieved by goalkeepers (Fig. 1). Compared with the WAnT and PWC170, the F–V test has the shortest duration but the highest intensity, taxing mainly the ATP–CP energy pathway. When we examined performance in the WAnT, which taxes mainly the anaerobic glycolytic energy transfer system, the highest value was again scored by goalkeepers, but there were smaller positional differences than in the F–V test (goalkeepers vs. defenders ~66 W). This difference was almost negligible in the PWC170, a test of the aerobic energy transfer system, where the largest difference was ~10 W (attackers vs. midfielders). This trend might be attributed to the positional-specific actions of goalkeepers during match play and training, which are of high intensity and short duration.
This study compared the defense performance of goalkeepers according to the location of their hands by applying the concept of the time taken for their hands to reach certain target points, movement velocity of their hands, and available defense area under the defense situations that occur the most frequently in an actual game in which the goalkeeper selects the most appropriate location and shooting is performed from the right and left sides of the penalty area or goal area. TIE THIS BACK TO THE IMMEDIATE OR ANAEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEM.
The weekly schedule of the training intervention is shown in Table 1. The SSGT or CAIT was added to the regular soccer training sessions (60-90 min).
Psychological Skills Training
The aim of the project was to develop an ecological intervention by creating a series of drillbased sessions to train psychological skills, and educate coaches about how to implement and integrate PST as a natural part of daily training. The program was delivered to the youth academies in nine Danish professional soccer clubs and consisted of three phases: (a) planning of the program, (b) education and designing soccer drills, and (c) delivery of the drills on the soccer pitch.
Goalkeeper’s position for defending short range shots
Jonghyun Yang1,2, Youngsoo Park3, Kitae Kim4 and Je-Kwang Ryu5
International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching 2017, Vol. 12(5) 603–610
2014, vol. 15 (2), 74– 79
Physical fitness in female soccer Players by Player Position: a focus on anaerobic Power
Pantelis t. nikolaidis