Respiratory and Circulatory System

The human body is comprised of multiple separate systems that work together to maintain homeostasis, regular, stable internal conditions. The maintenance of internal function depends on a variety of variables: body temperature, fluid balance, concentration of sodium, potassium and calcium ions, and blood sugar levels. The respiratory system is responsible for the function of a series of organ in taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide. The circulatory system, also known as the cardiovascular system, is responsible for the organ system that pumps blood throughout the body to transport nutrients help fight diseases, stabilize temperature and pH. The two systems work together to provide oxygen to organ tissues so that they may function properly. All systems as a whole rely on one another for stable functions, but the respiratory and circulatory systems work together in seeing through most important factor to homeostasis.

The heart pumps blood to and from the lungs in a process that eliminate carbon dioxide, a metabolic waste, and enriches the blood with oxygen. The respiratory system includes the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs and diaphragm. Respiration occurs when we inhale allowing oxygen to enter through the mouth and the nose. The oxygen travels through the larynx and trachea which splits into two attaching to both the left and right lungs as it again splits of into bronchi. In the lungs, the bronchial tube divides once again into small tubes that connect to alveoli.

Alveoli are sac-like air spaces in the lungs where exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place. The oxygen passes through and diffuses through the capillaries, while the carbon-rich blood from the veins releases its carbon into the alveoli which then follows the path the oxygen took to exit the body. The contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm triggers the chain which reaction that is breathing. The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that spans the width below the chest cavity. The contraction expands the diaphragm pulling oxygen into the lungs. When it relaxes carbon dioxide is pumped out of the lungs after the exchange in the alveoli.

The circulatory system’s major organ is the heart, it also includes the blood vessels that travel through the whole body. Veins and arteries are the bloods vessels that carry blood throughout the body. Veins transport oxygen-poor blood toward the heart: arteries transport oxygen-rich blood away from the heart. The system work in three distinct parts: pulmonary circulation- to and from the heart and lungs, coronary circulation- the movement of blood through the tissues of the heart, and systemic circulation- which supplies nourishment to all the body’s tissues. Blood travels through the four chambers of the heart. The pulmonary artery carries carbon-rich blood to the lungs right traveling through the right atrium and right ventricle. In the lungs the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen takes place in the alveoli. The now oxygen-rich blood travels out of the lungs through the pulmonary vein passes through the left atrium and left ventricle out to nourish organ tissues: brain, bones, skin, kidney, gastrointestinal organs, spleen, liver, among the rest. Complications in the circulatory system causes complications in the respiratory system and throws off homeostasis throughout the whole body, because organs are not receiving the oxygen needed to work effectively. Such complications arise in individuals with sickle cell anemia, diabetes, and HIV. The sickle patient we diagnosed, tested and treated, proved to have poor lung capacity.

As a group of doctors we determined the cause to be linked to acute chest syndrome which is caused by the mutation of hemoglobin, the red blood cell tasked with carrying oxygen, into a C-shape that clogs the capillaries directly interfering with the delivery of oxygen. Our diagnosis was confirmed when the blood smear showed the patients blood cells to be deformed in the C-shape earlier described. An individual with diabetes may show symptoms of kussmaul breathing, or rapid breathing, a result of diabetic ketoacidosis, a short term complication of diabetes caused by high blood glucose levels and high levels of ketones in the blood. The patient we determined to have diabetes also showed results for poor lung capacity. Because AIDS weakens the immune system making it more susceptible to infection, lung infections that lead to shortness of breath and difficulty breathing. The immune system heavily relies of the helper t cell to fight off infection, but because HIV targets and kills these cells, the circulatory lacks white blood cells and the capability to adequately fight off infection. Our fourth patient also resulted to have poor lung capacity, but in was in due to hormonal effects that loosen ligaments causing the increase of the chest diameter and flared ribs then in which causes the lung capacity to decrease. In order to maintain a healthy relationship between the circulatory and respiratory system, people must take up a healthy lifestyle to strengthen the lungs and supply the body will natural energy.

Running trains the lungs to keep a steady breathing rhythm to develop by requiring the circulatory system to pump blood faster throughout the body. Straying from straining lungs through bad habits, such as smoking, is key in keeping your lungs healthy and strong. Oxygen is necessary for tissue cells to obtain energy. The respiratory and circulatory work together to ensure that the organs in our body receive oxygen nourishment so that our other body systems, such as digestive, immune, and reproductive system may then work as expected. Our year-long lesson and labs that involved evaluating the body’s function have provided a solid knowledge of the body systems functions in working collectively to maintain homeostasis.

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