Renaissance: the Rebirth of Culture

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“The Renaissance was one of human civilization which was the majorities of exciting period. Renaissance is well-known historical period that almost people are familiar with. One of the most significant Italian Renaissance artists except Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who was the son of Giovanni Santi called as Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. He was the painter who had immense success with the fresco drew by the Vatican, plus he was also an architect during the end of Renaissance. One of the representative art works that he had drawn is “School of Athens”.

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This art work shows his talent for using the best story and composition on art. When I observed the “School of Athens” for first time, it was impressive because this art work was demonstrating magnificent view, plus all the people inside the art work, each of them are wearing dissimilar intense color of clothes. Therefore, I thought if I choose Raphael who drew “School of Athens” as my one of topics for investigation project in social, it will be interesting for me to investigate about him, Renaissance period, his drawings and others that is related to him. This lead to my research question as: What impact did Raphael have on society towards the end of Renaissance in the 16th century?

Renaissance defined as. Rebirth, revival, renewal of life and changeover period from medieval time to modern. The Renaissance period was not really long term compare to the Middle age which had lasted for 5th to 15th century. Renaissance period was started in Italy during 14th- 16th century, since the early 1490s toward 1527, which was grown for about 35 years, when Rome was packed by imperial troops. According to “A Handbook of Italian Renaissance Painting”, the Renaissance period began when Leonardo da Vinci was creating his significant works, ended with Raphael’s death or sack of Rome. Rome and Florence were the main Italian states where most of well-known artists trained or came from. During this period, Rome was the place where escaped when a Duchy was underneath by the attack, a Republic was rearranged or plainly tired of rootless. We could declare that Renaissance period was the peak of Renaissance art. There were three major artists during Renaissance period who are Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519), Michelangelo (1475–1564), and Raphael (1483–1520). Most of Renaissance artists went to Rome during this period to have a job for popes (during this period, pope was powerful and wealthy) and the nobility. This led artists to be succeeded on the ideal of harmony and balance used by the classical Greek and Roman artists. There were lots of artworks that were famed in Renaissance period. There are “The Last Supper”, “Sistine Chapel ceiling”, “Portrait of Pope Julius II”, “Saint George and the Dragon”, “Portrait of Bindo Altoviti”, “School of Athens”, and more and more. Those art works were all drawn by the famous artist, Raphael.

Raphael was well-known as Italian Renaissance artist. Raphael nickname is “Prince of painters”. His full name is Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino. Raphael was not only a painter, he was also an architect. He was born in April 6th 1483. He spent his childhood in Urbino, where it was a center of cultural. Because he was born in center of culture, it was easy for him to have cultural benefits and his delightful personality. Moreover, Giovanni Santiv who is Raphael’s father was the painter to Duke of Urbino which explains that his father was the first step for Raphael to be the splendid artist. However, his father was died when Raphael was 11 years old. Raphael was easily elevated because of his father and his environment. His mother was Magia di Battista di Nicola Ciarla. However, his mother died when Raphael was 8 years old. Even though he loses his entire family member when he was young, he was a guy who was an attractive and individualist. After he got trained or support from Pietro Perugino and Timoteo Viti, he started to draw since 1500. According to “Raphael: His Life and Works: With Particular Reference to Recently Discovered Records, and an Exhaustive Study of Extant Drawings and Pictures”, from 1500 to 1520, he drew 78 paintings in total. His art works were 26 portraits, 26 Madonnas, 6 paintings and the other 17 was rooms. He had drawn numerous of eminent art works that even nowadays, it is prominent, such as “Madone de Lorette”, “Madonna in the meadow”, “The School of Athens”, “Sistine Madonna” and the other art works. On April 6th 1520, he died when it was his birthday, when he was 37 years old. He was buried in Pantheon because he was high-respected person.

His career was incredible. The people who taught Raphael were famous and talented Italian artists. In 1495, he had trained from Timoteo Viti who was court painter in Urbino. Timoteo taught him an alternative theory. In 1498, he made a contact with the works of Paolo Uccello who was an Italian painter and mathematician. Paolo was famous for outstanding his first work on visual viewpoint in art. Later on, he had been contact with Luca Signorelli, who was renowned for his skill of draftsman and his usage of foreshortening. Around 1500, Raphael began to work in Perugia. In there, Pietro Perugino, who was major Italian painter, was a Raphael’s teacher. Raphael learned extensive professional knowledge from Pietro. Pietro’s influence appeared in Raphael’s early art works. From his some of art works, it expresses the elegant style of Perujin. He already had more lively and more complicated work than Peru’s. He received a special reputation in Peru, and then he went to Florence where Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Buonarotii were expanding the boundaries of art. Raphael spent four years in Florence, painting some of his flagship St. Mary’s paintings. He learned about human anatomy in Michelangelo’s work, learned simple pyramid structures, effective use of light, intimacy, and three-dimensional Spumatto techniques for form with smooth color changes, from Leonardo. This allowed Raphael to create a quiet and serene work that was appealing. In September 13th 1501, he drew “Baronci Altarpiece”. In 1502-1503, he drew a picture called “The Mond Crucifixion”. In Rome from 1509 to 1511, he painted the Stanza della Segnatura (“”Room of the Signatura””) frescoes located in the Palace of the Vatican. He later painted another fresco cycle for the Vatican, in the Stanza d’Eliodoro (“”Room of Heliodorus””). In 1504 to 1507, Raphael went to Florence to live. From there, he started to paint the series of “Madonnas”. In 1504, he drew “The Marriage of the Virgin”. In 1506 Raphael drew the “”Madonna of the Meadow””. In 1506, he drew “Saint George and the Dragon”.

In 1508 he went to Rome because Pope Julius II called him. He started his career as a pope’s painter afterwards. He soon expanded wonderful fame and spent the rest of his life in Rome. In 1509 to 1511, he went to Rome. In Rome, he had painted “Stanza della Segnatura” he drew “The School of Athens”. In 1512, Raphael drew the “Triumph of Galatea” and “Portrait of Pope Julius II” and “Sistine Madonna”. In 1514, Bramante, who was Italian architect, died and Raphael was given name which was architect of the new St Peter’s. In 1514, he drew “Galatea”. In 1514 to 1515 Raphael drew the “Portrait of Balthasar Castiglione”. In 1515 to 1516 Raphael drew cartoons for “Tapestries at the Sistine Chapel”. In 1517, he lived in the Palazzo Caprini located in Borgo where the palace that was designed grand style by Bramante. In 1520, he drew “The Transfiguration” and “La Fornarina” before he died.

Raphael’s art works are in realistic, detailed and depiction human form. He also gave the magnificence of human spirit which personified the spirit of Renaissance. Most of his art works are related to religion because he was Catholic. His portraits are mostly about his friends’ portraits or famous people. “Mond Crucifixion”. This painting expresses Jesus hanging on the cross, who seems to be calm even though he is vanishing. There are two angels are around him, catching his blood in chalices. On the right of Jesus, Mary Magdalene is kneeling down, with John the Evangelist who is standing at the back of her. On his left, there is Mary who is mother of Jesus, and St. Jerome the altar was dedicated, is kneeling.

Raphael’s works hires extremely realistic depiction of the human body. “Deposition of Christ” and his series of “Madonna” express the flowing motion, shade outline, realistic dimensions and real-world light. Most representative of the Renaissance is Raphael’s art works. His art works “School of Athens”, a fresco in the Apostolic Palace that represents the amaze minds of Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras and Archimedes, among others. They joint in a luxurious hall. His impressive and gracious portray of human beings reminds ancient Greece and Rome attitudes. In addition, he had found the standard of conception of man as the most excellent nature’s creature.

His mentors, who lead Raphael to be the greatest artist, were Leonardo Da Vinci and Giovanni Santi. First, Giovanni Santi is the father of Raphael. He was also an Italian painter, and the decorator. He was born in 1435 in Colbordolo, Italy. Colbordolo is the place where duchy of Urbino. He was a merchant for a little time however later on, Piero della who was mathematician, geometer, and an Italian painter during early Renaissance, taught Giovanni.

Fiorenzo di Lorenzo influenced Giovanni to be the artist, and seems to have been an assistant and friend of Melozzo da Forlì. He was court painter to the Duke of Urbino and painted several altarpieces, two now in the Berlin Museum, a Madonna in the church of San Francesco in Urbino, one at the church of Santa Croce in Fano, one in the National Gallery at London, and another in the gallery at Urbino; an Annunciation at the Brera in Milan; a resurrected Christ in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest; and a Jerome in the Lateran. He died in Urbino.

Leonardo Da Vinci was also a mentor of Raphael. His full name is Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci. He was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance whose areas of interest included invention, drawing, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and he is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter, and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal.”

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Renaissance: the Rebirth of Culture. (2021, Apr 26). Retrieved from