Physio-chemical Characterization of Guggul Oleo-gum-resin
Commiphora wightii (Arnott.) Bhandari is found in the semi-arid and arid regions of India. ‘Guggul’ a common name for all Commiphora species, is the bioactive oleo-gum-resin responsible for the therapeutic effects. Gum, essential oils, flavonoids, ellagic acid, camphorene, cembrene, diterpene hydrocarbon, diterpene alcohol, Z- guggulsterone, E-guggulsterone, guggulsterol-I, II, & III, cholesterol, etc. are present. Guggul was introduced as a medicine in 1966, and but approved as a hypolipidemic drug for marketing in India in 1986. Commercially Ayurvedic formulations of guggul are Triphala guggulu, Yogaraj guggulu, Kaishor guggulu, Punavadi guggulu, etc. used for detoxification, treating obesity, arthritic conditions, muscle aches, rheumatism, gout, eliminating fluid, helping heart conditions, and inflammations. The present study reports physicochemical characterization of guggul oleo gum resin.
Guggul is the gum-resin exudate from the tree Commiphora Wightii (Hook, ex stocks) Engl. (Syn.Balsamodendron mukul Hook, belongs to the genus Commiphora of the family Burseraceae. This tree grows wild in the semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka. Its bark is ash-colored and comes off in rough flakes, exposing the under bark which also peels off. On injury, the plant exudes a yellowish gum-resin, which quickly solidifies to an agglomerate of tears or stalactitic pieces.
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The dried resin has aBalsamic odour. The trees are tapped commercially, during winter. Average yield of gum-resin per tree is around 700-900 g /year. Its usefulness in the modern life processes diverted global attention due to its Anti-inflammatory, Anti-arthritic, anti-rheumatic, hypo lipideamic activity for
Obese and cardiac patents. Oleo-gum resin of C. wighti has been proved to be potent pypocholes-terolemic, Hypo lipidemic, and anti-atherosclerotic agent both in clinical as well as experimental studies. It is also known to increase white blood cell count strong disinfectant properties. Use of guggulu available in the local market is a common practice by the pharmacies.
Guggul was introduced to the medicine world in 1966 by G. V. Satyavati. Her studies of guggul on rabbits were directly inspired by Ayurvedic text, in which guggul was recommended for the treatment of atherosclerosis and in
1986, guggul was approved as Hypolipidemic drug in India.
In the middle 1990s, guggul was introduced as a remedy for hypercholesterolemia and other cardiovascular diseases into the western medical world. In the 1990’s, novel drugs from guggul were developed to treat and manage various cardiovascular disorders such as hypolipidemic, etc. To understand the mechanism at molecular level responsible for the hypolipidemic activity of guggul, substantial research has been made.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of drug:
Raw Guggul oleo gum resin [Commiphora wightii (Arn) Bhandari.] was collected from different parts of India such as Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.
Physico-chemical parameters like loss on drying, ash value, acid insoluble ash, water soluble extractives, alcohol soluble extractives, were carried out by following standard procedures.