Managing the Fear of Public Speaking

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Aristotle’s Rhetorical Triangle

Aristotle’s rhetorical triangle contains three different approaches to public speaking, depending on what kind of speech you decide to give. These were created because Aristotle began to study rhetoric. Rhetoric is known to be public speaking during that time. Aristotle began pursuing this because he believed that it was important for various types of speeches to be delivered in a specific way. Thus, the creation of the three proofs that are known as: Logos, Pathos, and Ethos.

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Logos is considered to be one of the speeches that are based on facts and logic. So unlike the others, Logos would a be a speech that contained information that could be backed up by evidence. Many Logos type speeches are ones that inform rather than promote emotion. The point of a Logos speech is to inform the audience and raise awareness about a specific topic. In terms of persuasion, Logos tries to persuade the audience by giving credible facts and by using logic. An example of Logos would be a speech about Type 2 Diabetes.

The speech isn’t necessarily trying to make the audience pick sides, but to inform the audience on the topic. Pathos is known to be a speech that is more based on emotion and delivery, rather than logic. Many may use Pathos to trigger the emotions of the audience to help them agree with the speaker.

An example that was used during this semester was about interracial marriage and marriage within the LGBTQ community. The speaker used personal experiences to show that this issue is happening to his own family, which gave it a personal touch. This showed more passion coming from the speaker, which resulted to grabbing the attention and even the side of the audience.

Ethos is mainly about credibility when giving a speech. Many people tend to listen more if you’re in higher power, or if you establish good credibility even in the beginning of the speech. So when giving speeches like Ethos, if you show good morals or good character, the more your audience will grasp the information you have to offer. An example would be, if you were known to be someone who had a good character and you were to give a speech to your fellow colleagues, they would most likely be attentive to what you had to say.

Personally, out of the three, I believe that Ethos is most important. Mainly because you may have all the facts and you may bring in all the emotion, but if you’re known to be a liar and just a bad person with bad morals, no one will believe you. I believe that credibility is a very important thing to have, especially when giving a speech to persuade or any speech in that matter. Without credibility, you won’t ever be taken seriously when presenting a speech.

Cicero’s Five canons of Rhetoric

Cicero’s Five canons of Rhetoric, consists of Five components of public communication that are considered the “foundation of public speaking” (Coopman & Lull 2017). In other words, It’s factors that you should consider when preparing for a speech. The Five components are: Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, and Delivery.

Invention is basically what you plan on saying during your speech. “As the first art, invention refers to the moment when you find an idea, line of thought, or argument you might use in a speech.” (Coopman & Lull 2017). In other words, anytime you want to add information into your speech, whether it be while writing your outline or while you giving your speech, that is what invention is. Invention doesn’t necessarily mean that every idea you have , you use in your speech.

Arrangement is how everything is organized in your speech. In simple term, the outline of your speech. “This art accounts for the basic parts of a speech as well as the order in which points are presented.” (Coopman & Lull 2017). Delivering any type of speech becomes easier if you have an outline to follow. By just organizing your speech, it cuts the difficulty of delivering a speech in half. “Good organization helps maintain the audience’s attention and keeps them focused on the ideas the speaker presents.” (Coopman & Lull 2017).

Style is adding more detail to your information. Instead of just stating something, add more descriptive words to make your phrase come to life and not just be a statement. “…involves the imagery you use to bring a speech’s content to life.” (Coopman & Lull 2017). This will help grab the attention of the audience more than if you were to just state facts. Memory is how much you know about your topic and how you apply that knowledge to give a good speech. “… refers to using your knowledge and abilities as a communicator to give an effective speech.” (Coopman & Lull 2017). This could be utilized by memorization or even passion for the topic your speech is about. When you give a speech, you usually depend on the information you attain when you research about your topic.

Delivery is giving or presenting the speech itself. “Delivery involves how you use your voice, gestures, and body movement when giving a speech.” (Coopman & Lull 2017). Delivery is very important because that’s the time that you get to inform or persuade your audience. All your preparation, or the previous “canons” lead to this last one, delivery. “How to make a ‘snack’ of your choosing.” Full-Sentence Outline

  • Topic: How to make Popcorn
  • General Purpose: To Inform
  • Specific Purpose: To Inform my audience how to make popcorn.
  • Thesis: Popcorn is an easy snack to make with just store bought kernels and a microwave.
  • Type of Informative Speech: Explanatory Speech


  •  Attention Getter:

Popcorn is a widely known snack all over the world. I indulge in popcorn almost every week. Whether it be at home or in the movie theater, popcorn is always my go-to snack. I’m not going to lie, popcorn can be difficult to make from scratch, but no need to fear! I’ll be explaining how you can make popcorn at home with just store bought kernels and a microwave.

  • Reason to Listen:

Popcorn is a delicious snack that should be indulged by everyone.

  • Thesis Statement:

Popcorn is an easy snack to make with just store bought kernels and a microwave.

  • Credibility Statement:
  1. I’ve been eating popcorn ever since I was a baby.
  2. I couldn’t see my life without popcorn
  • Preview of Main Points:
  1. First, I will talk about where you could get the popcorn.
  2. Second, I will talk about how to make the popcorn.

Popcorn is an easy snack to make with just store bought kernels and a microwave.

Where can you buy the popcorn

  • Popcorn can be accessible in any kind of store.

Because popcorn is such a well-known snack, you can find it almost everywhere! I suggest buying them in grocery stores because they tend to be sold at a lower price and in bigger boxes. The boxes contain of pre-packed kernels. You can find individually pre-packed kernels in stores such as convenience stores.

Transition: Now that you have the popcorn, we can discuss how to make the popcorn.

  • How to make the popcorn

 Just in case you started making the popcorn without reading the directions, don’t worry! This is how you cook the popcorn.

You first put the side on the packet that says “face down”, face down on the microwave. Then you can press the “popcorn” feature on your microwave. If you don’t have that or choose not to use it, I would set the microwave to a minute and 30 seconds. From experience, this will pop all the kernels and not burn your delicious snack.


  • Review the Main Points
  1. Today I first talked about where you could get the popcorn.
  2. Second, I talked about how to make the popcorn.
  • Restate Thesis

Popcorn is an easy snack to make with just store bought kernels and a microwave.

  • Closure

In Conclusion, popcorn is a delicious snack that can enjoyed by many. There’s no need to fear burning the house down or eating too many calories. Popcorn can be made by anyone who wanted to enjoy a nice snack.

Informative and Persuasive Speaking

Informative speaking is when you want to inform, raise awareness, or help the audience gain more knowledge about a topic. Persuasive speaking is more on persuading the audience to take sides on a view on a topic. Informative speaking doesn’t take sides, unlike persuasive speaking. Informative is like a basic overview of a topic, whereas persuasive speaking is making arguments on why the audience should be on “this” side of a topic. Informative speaking might refer more to Logos, because the goal is to inform the audience with facts and logic. Persuasive speaking might refer to Pathos because exerting a lot of emotion to an audience can make them agree with you more. In regards to style, Informative speaking might now interact with the audience as much as Persuasive. Informative speaking might not be as “dramatic” as persuasive speaking might be.

Although Informative and Persuasive speaking is very different, they do have similarities. The two are different, but they do have an objective to help the audience gain knowledge about their topic. You can’t inform without informing the audience, and you can’t persuade the audience if they don’t know anything about your topic. They are indeed very different types of speeches, but every speech has a goal of informing the audience more about their topic.

Two Concepts or Tools/Skills Used Outside of Class After all the speeches that I gave and watched, the quizzes, and the discussions, I can say that this class pushed that spark in me to no longer be nervous when speaking in public and taught me how to organize my thoughts. Although I have a long way to go, I know now how to deal with my public speaking anxiety and how to calm myself down in certain situations. This class pushed me out of my comfort zone, and although it was very difficult, I’m proud to say that I could do it. Before this class, I would almost never volunteer to speak publically. Now when I see the opportunity, I take it because I know that that’s the only way I can improve.

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Managing the Fear of Public Speaking. (2022, Feb 12). Retrieved from