Lifestyle is Referred to the Characteristics of Inhabitants
“Lifestyle is referred to the characteristics of inhabitants of a region in special time and place. It includes day to day behaviors and functions of individuals in job, activities, fun and diet.(Farhud, 2015), Several studies have investigated the associations between various unhealthy behaviors and physical or psychosocial health, (Tremblay, LeBlanc, Kho, Saunders, Larouche & et al, 2011). health-related behaviors, such as nutrition, physical activity, and substance use, “new” behaviors such as bullying, internet use , and video game playing, (Busch & De Leeuw, 2014)
Physical inactivity has been identified as the fourth major risk factor for mortality in the world, and physical inactivity is higher than overweight and obesity as a global risk factor for mortality”” ([WHO], 2018). The unhealthy diet has led to the emergence of chronic diseases and associated deaths. These behaviors include low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and their direct impact on the risk of related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer. “”Studies indicate that unhealthy eating habits and physical activity contribute significantly to disease”” (Barbosa Filho, Campos & Lopes, 2014). Other unhealthy behaviors, and sedentary behavior, which shown a positive relationship with adverse health outcomes in adults (et al, 2014).
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These behaviors, which include e.g. physical inactivity, unhealthy eating habits and sedentary behaviors, are often interrelated. In addition, it is practiced during childhood, adolescence and puberty. It is not a major cause of morbidity and mortality during adolescence. It has a significant impact on health at later ages. Monitoring these behaviors during adolescence is a priority.
Adolescents experience growth in height and weight and changes in body composition that are greater than during any time other than infancy. Hormonal changes result in development of sex characteristics, growth and maturation of long bones, and gains in fat mass in girls and muscle mass in boys. It is during adolescence that individuals gain in this period 20% of their adult height, and 50% of their adult skeletal mass.( Neinstein, 2008).
In adolescent, ages 12-18, individuals are subject to changes in their behaviors, including exploring things, adapting and learning, and the success of individuals in this stage depends on the tasks of development in their own abilities. These behaviors are called life style, while some behaviors can lead to risks on other meaning unhealthy behaviors.
This paper is aimed to review literature that focusing in some behaviors associated with life style that affect the health directly and indirectly, and its impact on health psychosocial and physical among adolescent
Through this study, identify the behavioral patterns of adolescents, including physical inactivity, sedentary behaviors and unhealthy eating habits, related to health and their effects on physical and psychosocial health. It can be defined and provided preventive programs activated through schools and the role of the school nurse, in addition to the community interventions in health promotion programs. It is clear that, According to our local community, the Jordanian adolescents have been influenced by western cultures to acquire modern technology and their impact on everyday health practices. Therefore, social factors and the role of the media play an important role in improving adolescents’ health standards and changing their lifestyles.
This paper was based on previous studies and researches which concerned about the subject of unhealthy behaviors among adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their impact on health. The review of literature deals with topics in the following order: the concept of unhealthy behaviors and its types, life style behaviors, and their impact on health
A review of literature related to the use of search in the library of electronic databases including CINAHL, Medline, PubMed, Google and Google Scholar. Each database was searched using keywords for the variables including: adolescents, unhealthy behaviors, and lifestyle. Selected articles for listing are those published between 2012 – 2018. In addition, the references for all selected papers were documented to identify the published articles that have been used.
unhealthy behaviors remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (WHO, ), There are many studies that have focused on unhealthy behaviors and their relationship between physical or psychosocial health. In addition traditional health-related behaviors, such as nutrition, physical activity, and substance use, “new” behaviors such as bullying, internet use and video games are becoming increasingly common among adolescents. (Busch & De Leeuw, 2014). A study was conducted in the Netherlands in which self-questionnaire data collection was used to determine the unhealthy behaviors of 2690 high school students in 2012. The study found that, almost all unhealthy behaviors were largely related to psychosocial problems. As well as other behaviors such as Internet use, video games and smoking.
With technological advances, the time spent in front of television, the use of the Internet and playing video games, all called “”screen time””. (Busch, Ananda, & Rob Josephus, 2013). A study was conducted on 5 Dutch schools for 2,425 adolescents (Approximately average age was 14 years range 11-18 years), using pilot study, to assess the association between screen time and marijuana use, alcohol use, smoking, unsafe sex, skipping school, bullying, poor nutritional behavior and less physical exercise.(et al, 2013). The study revealed that, the screen time was associated with bullying, being bullied, less physical activity, skipping school, alcohol use and unhealthy eating habits with varying in the results in each behavior.
On the other hands, Unhealthy behavior in the school environment has been associated with low academic attainment, obesity and poor health with more unhealthy practices such as regular smoking, sitting for long periods watching television, unhealthy eating habits such eating sweets and sugars, lifestyle and life satisfaction. Some studies suggest that smoking and physical inactivity are associated with the size of the peer group in the school environment, and that smoking, alcohol use and physical inactivity are associated with frequent peer contact. (Vuille & Schenkel, 2001).
One study was conducted on the “”health behavior of school-aged adolescents””. Data were obtained through the Tuscan Survey 2009-2010, a national survey of the World Health Organization. The total sample included 3291 students in schools: 1135 children 11 years and 1255 years of age 13 and 901 years of age 15 years. This study shown many results, that there was a strong association between school environments and peers with unhealthy behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and sedentary lifestyle.
In review of one of study found that social and demographic factors were associated with adverse health behaviors, as well as the lack of adoption of adolescent to health promotion programs. A study conducted upon Swedish adolescents, aimed to explore factors including social and demographic factors related to exposure to unhealthy behaviors and to the lack of health-promoting behaviors in different age groups of adolescents. Using a survey of 10,590 pupils in the 13-14, 15-16 and 17-18 age groups. Health behaviors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, lack of adherence to healthy meals, physical activity, and association with social and economic status were identified as the main weaknesses of unhealthy behavior. The results revealed three models, which may reflect the under coming weakness of unhealthy behaviors and the lack of adoption of health-promoting behaviors at different ages during adolescence. The decline in social and economic status has been associated with an essential weakness in health behaviors in all age groups, (Paulsson, Edlund, Stenhammar, & Westerling, 2014).
Furthermore, the role of the family in adolescence period, in controlling the health practices of the unhealthy food, and a balanced diet. A study has conducted ,which aimed to identify the relation of family and functioning of parenting practices on adolescent unhealthy eating behavior, The sample was of 2779 adolescent from 20 schools in the Minnesota area, self-report instrument was used, in order to assess their intake of food, weight and physical activity, Associations between family functioning using Family Assessment Device (FAD) (Epstein et al., 1983; Miller et al., 1985) and parenting practices and adolescent outcomes, (Berge, Larson, Eisenberg, Loth, & Neumark, 2014). The study shown, good family relationships (such as good communication, problem solving, unconditional acceptance), parenting practices that include warmth, and parents’ knowledge of the child’s place may be important to address adolescent eating behaviors.(et al, 2014)
What happened if we gathered more than unhealthy behaviors in adolescents, considering health outcomes?. A study was conducted in this regard, where it was aimed at identifying a comprehensive collection of behaviors associated with health in adolescents and identifying adolescents with similar behavior. The study was using an online questionnaire on students of schools of five Dutch secondary schools 2,690 adolescents (11-18 years old), (response rate 79.8%), on September 2012. (Busch, Van Stel, Schrijvers, & de Leeuw, 2013). The findings show that health-related behaviors tend to cluster, indicating specific patterns of behavior that reveal individual behaviors of health: 1. prone Behavior, bully behavior, 3. use of problematic screen time, and stable behavior 4. “ In addition, specific patterns of health-related behaviors were associated with specific health outcomes”.(et al, 2013) In general, unhealthy behavior was caused by multiple health behaviors Associated with problems in psychosocial and physical health. (et al, 2013)
“A `healthy lifestyle behavior’ is a broad term encompassing behaviors such as being physically active, not smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, and healthy dietary intakes”, ( Tee, Gan, Tan, & Chin, 2018). And to understand the relationship about obesity in adolescents and lifestyle and predict the impact on academic achievement in schools. One of the cross-sectional studies conducted in Malaysia, on a sample of adolescents aged 12-16 in two schools, which aims to find the relationship between BMI-for-age and lifestyle behaviors which include physical activity, the quality of sleep and how to consume meals, and the executive function of these patterns on memory, flexibility Cognitive and the operational inhibitory, in addition to the involve of family income as a constant indicator of all cases. The study found that the unhealthy lifestyle is linked directly to obesity, and the adverse affect of obesity in executive functions, and that these patterns are affected by the level standard living of adolescents’ families, (et al, 2018)
On other lifestyle revealed in sleeping hours and its effect on health among adolescents, a proposition test the relationship between sleep hours and their effects on weight in adolescents. A study was conducted in Saudi Arabia, aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents, (Al-Hazzaa, Musaiger, Abahussain, Al-Sobayel, & Qahwaji, 2012). Cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Khobar, Jeddah and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 males and females aged 15 to 19 years old, randomized samples were selected, measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and duration of sleep, examine the association between sleep duration and obesity measures. The result revealed, there is a strong relation between short sleep duration and risk for overweight .and obesity.(et al, 2012).
By identifying the patterns of unhealthy behaviors of the adolescent population, and the life style of healthy behaviors such as regular meals and physical activity, the results of these studies can contribute to the development of solutions to the problems faced by health promotion programs, as well as interventions that provide solutions to harmful behaviors in adolescent age. Policies can be developed by making recommendations for decision-makers with a healthy plan for adolescents through schools, media and community education. induct researches concerning on finding solutions for how to deal with adolescents who practice unhealthy patterns, by identifying the long-term causes of morbidity during adult age. Encouraging volunteer work campaigns that promote healthy lifestyles, engaging adolescents as part of this work.
According to the studies stated in this paper, there is a wide prevalence of unhealthy behavior patterns among adolescents, its impact on daily life patterns, and what these behaviors affect on health. This is due to the lack of environmental and socioeconomic factors, lack of awareness among parents and at the end on adolescents. it is recomended that adopting a policies and interventions to promote health, and media programs to protect adolescents from the consequences affect on their physical and mental development. The community nurse role has many sectors that can provide good programs, work with agencies that support the youth, update the awareness of community through contact with decision makers and conduct research on adolescents and healthy life style.”