Globalization in Context of Aspects of Culture
The main ideas of culture such ethnicity, religion and language have all contributed in part to globalization in various fashions. These ideas can connect Greiner’s idea of three theses known as polarization, glocalization, and homogenization. An example of a cultural attempt to assimilate is the Cherokee who began merge into western society, however the small attempts of pluralism or resisting the influence of the western beliefs, as the Cherokees were forced out of their land (Pounder). This can connect to Greiner’s idea of polarization in that globalization can cause social disorder, and in this case resistance to western spread resulted in disorder and displacement.
However, language also plays a part in the act of the globalization process, for it allows smooth communications between individuals in cultures. Some examples of the globalization of languages is English as it is considered a global lingua franca language or commonly used language that allows the interaction of business to be simplified instead of the usage of different languages (Greiner 113). As different languages in business would delay the ability to have economic benefit or even political benefit. As result the idea can be connected to homogenization in that many parts of the world have a decrease in diversity of their second languages as English dominates globally. In addition, in some fashions this could also make a dependency on a Lingua Franca language. Having global dominant language such as English can gradually kill other languages whose ethnic groups or cultures has shrunk as result of globalization or other factors such as assimilation. Languages also converge because of globalization and may even accelerate this process such as pidgin languages when “a language combines vocab or grammatical practices from two or more languages that have come in contact” (Greiner 112).
This is also a result of globalization as more cultures come in contact and must communicate due to possible political or economic factors. However, on a global context, some language leaves a mark regardless of where it stands in the world. This is known as toponym when a location name is used in a language to represent an aspect of a culture or ethnic group which can be connected to the idea neolocalism where the uniqueness of a location is preserved. Outside of language diffusion neolocalism also applies to religion such as sacred spaces. As these locations become resistant to global changes as those locations are symbolic locations of a religious rituals, and such examples include Jerusalem, Mecca, and Medina. Religion can also play a role in homogenization or even polarization across the world. In that some religions such as universalizing religions such as Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism. In which this plays role in decreasing religious variety across cultures around the world, however as globalization isn’t static, so this means the potential homogenization properties of universalizing religions face possible fragmentation in regions where the religion branches off into similar but are not the same belief system. Thus, it may also play role in promoting polarization as differences could cause ethnic conflicts.