The Effect of Sexual Assault in a Diverse World

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Updated: May 16, 2022
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This research paper magnifies sexual assault in a perspective that defines the heterogeneous classification of individuals that are preyed upon. In congruence, this dissertation enumerates to what degree of the following methodologies play in becoming a victim of sexual assault: psychoanalytic, household malfunction, psychological, the feminist approach, and the multi-factor model. Furthermore, the Texas Penal Code (Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 22.011 and Tex. Penal Code Ann. § 22.021) will be assessed and examined. More importantly, the rights of sexual victims in Texas, Article I, § 30 – Rights of Crime Victims § 56.

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045 – Presence of an Advocate or Representative During Forensic Medical Exam, § 56.01 – Definitions, § 56.02 – Crime victims’ rights and Art.56.021 will be studied. Equally important, because there are not any awaiting legislations in Texas, this research paper will incorporate the pending of legislations in the following borderline states: Louisiana and Oklahoma. Moreover, because mass media and social media has grown at an expeditious rate, an importance has been placed upon the role of cyberspace and the results it has on sexual assault victims. Lastly, victim programs will be deliberated in a manner that highlights and reconstructs the advancement of sexual assault programs to better fit the needs of victims.

To begin, dejectedly, Sexual assault has come to be prevalent in the United States throughout time, however, an abundant amount research, statistics, and enactment have showcased an underrated approach society has taken to acknowledge, sympathize, and distinguish that there is in fact a diverse expanse of individuals who are categorized under being sexual assault victims which include women, men, girls and boys. Namely, there has been an abundant amount of studies in which women are more likely to become sexual assault victims due to a contributing extent of factors. With this in mind, the article, Child sexual assault: Risk factors for girls, “prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads” (Butler, 2013, p. 643). According to the study, a major objective was to see if adolescent individuals would encounter a sexual assault prior to becoming eighteen. In correspondence, throughout the study, adolescent girls were more to likely to become sexual assault victims through family dysfunction, lack of education, psychological welfare and introverted characteristics. Speaking on that manner, according to (Butler) 2013 the following indications synthesize the overall attributes of girls who have been sexually assault prior to becoming eighteen years of age:

prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault (p. 643).

To enumerate, in regard to victim characteristics it is imperative to understand that the majority of sexual predators locate victims who are considered frail, powerless, and susceptible. To explain, during the period of their youth, woman were questioned about how their emotions were prior to the sexual assault occurrence. According to the research “women who had been sexually abused in childhood were more likely than other women to report having been unhappy and socially isolated during childhood and to have had more psychiatric and developmental problems. (Butler, 2013, p. 644). Furthermore, incapacities such as educational deficits, psychological debility, a rational thought process, and lastly, incapacitation of speech.

Secondly, there is a lack of societal understanding regarding male sexual assault victims due to characteristics and labels that at the center of how a sexual assault victim is perceived as. Many individuals believe that there is an emotional stigma that correlates predominantly with women and includes feminine attributes and emotions. Moreover, because men are viewed as being individuals who are stronger and less emotional attached cannot feel and be sexual assault victims, which is not accurate. According to the article, Prevalence and consequences of adult sexual assault of men: Review of empirical findings and state of the literature as a consequence of these myths, male victims of adult sexual assault (ASA) may have difficulty obtaining treatment services, and efforts to prevent male ASA may be marginalized (Donnelly & Kenyon, 1996, as cited in Peterson, Voller, Polusny & Murdoch 2011). For these reasons, it is profusely difficult to be able to accurately identify and have the ability to be able to generate programs that will assist men due to the fact that there is a large amount of sexual assault crimes that are not being reported. However, according to the text, studies were conducted in a variety of areas such as educational institutions, communities, prison sanctions, and individuals who were intersexual to be able to review the information in a manner that was broadened. To explain, According to Peterson et al. (2011):

Of the 87 studies that we reviewed, 79 studies (representing 74 unique samples) reported the prevalence of ASA among samples of men (see Table 1). These studies comprised U.S. community samples (n= 7), non-U.S. community samples (n= 3), U.S. college student samples (n= 29), non-U.S. college student samples (n= 4), predominately gay/bisexual samples (n= 8 in U.S. and n= 1 non-U.S.), U.S. military/veteran samples (n= 7), U.S. prison inmate samples (n= 6), physical/mental health treatment-seeking samples (n= 5 in U.S. and n= 1 non-U.S.), and homeless samples (n= 1). Studies varied widely in their methodological quality and definitions of ASA used. For example, response rates serve as one measure of the methodological quality of prevalence studies: Community sample studies reported response rates between 21% and 68%, and, four of the ten community sample studies did not report response rates at all. Most studies reporting on college students used convenience samples of students who completed self-report surveys in classroom settings, and many of these studies (45%) did not report response rates. (p.18)

Concerning this topic, the following surveys were based upon the “study, sample characteristics, N, response rate, method of obtaining data, definition of sexual assault, and rates of sexual assault” (Peterson et al., 2011). More importantly, after reviewing these statistics, it is imperative to understand that regardless of living situation, age, and sexual orientation men are crime victims and deserve to be facilitated, supported, and taken seriously due to the fact that sexual assault is a serious offense that is often underrated and overlooked with relation to men.

As a matter of fact, there are an assortment of studies that have been researched which delve into an individual’s mental wellbeing, physical attributes, and adolescent upbringing. Furthermore, it is important to be able to understand how and why certain individuals are more prone to becoming sexual assault victims. By doing this, program directors are able to better facilitate programs for sexual assault victims. With that being said, the first victim theory that was associated with sexual assault was developed by Sigmund Freud and known as the psychoanalytic theory. This theory examined scientific work and neurobiology and because woman were analyzed, Sigmund Freaud found that a significant amount of woman had encountered sexual abuse throughout their childhood and in specific, by their fathers.

According to Sigmund, becoming sexually abused produced major distress for the individual during the course of their life. Moreover, according to (South Eastern CASA) this approach is centered primarily on individual awareness as the source of sexual assault:

What he did to explain this is develop his now classic theories of psycho-sexual development in which the theoretical constructs of ‘penis-envy’ and the ‘Oedipus Complex’ are central. These theories claim that children pass through a stage of being sexually attracted to their parents (boys to their mothers and girls to their fathers). Freud argued that it is the inability to successfully resolve this psycho-sexual stage of development that gives rise to the psychic damage he observed in his clients who had reported childhood sexual abuse. In other words, he developed an elaborate theoretical framework to deny the reality of childhood sexual abuse and incest. (para 1)

Because of this, according to Sigmund, adolescent individuals can become entrapped in the cycle of sexual assault crimes and thus becoming victims of sexual assault. However, there are limitations on this theory. Many researches argue, that a major limitation regarding this theory is that is does not explain community and societal contributors. More importantly, this theory places a large reliance on the child who is the victim. Furthermore, individuals who become perpetrators have characteristics that include being men and women who are much older.

Furthermore, individuals have a high rate of being sexual assault due to household malfunction and it is imperative to understanding that disorders arise from family dynamics. 

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The Effect of Sexual Assault in a Diverse World. (2021, Nov 21). Retrieved from