A Analysis of Criminalistics in the Field of Forensic Science

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Updated: Jun 28, 2022
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Category:Analysis
Date added
2022/06/26
Pages:  2
Words:  748
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Criminalistics is the professional and scientific discipline directed to the recognition, identification, individualization, and evaluation of physical evidence by application of the natural sciences in matters of law and science. Criminalistics includes the identification of physical evidence and findings as to its origin. Criminalistics is one of many divisions in the field of forensic science. The crime laboratory in which physical evidence obtained by the police in the course of an investigation is examined in may be known as a forensic science laboratory.

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Laboratory technicians are often knows as forensic scientists. The professional group in this field, however still identify with the term Criminalistics. Many times the public will overlook the efforts of these crime scientists. Many people do not know the difference between a criminologist and a criminalist. The difference is as night and day. The criminologist studies the sociology of crime. They examine the criminal behavior, crime statistics, and the causes and roots of crime. Where as, the criminalist is a scientist who is often someone with a doctorate in biology or chemistry (or both) who analyzes the evidence collected at a crime scene. Criminalists help to identify victims and rule out potential suspects. In most cases, it is the forensic evidence that can make or break a case.

Since there are rarely any other witnesses at a crime scene other than the victim and the suspect criminalists help to recreate the scene. Criminalists are specialists who help to bring us one step closer to solving unsolved crimes. Criminalists recognize, document, collect, analyze, interpret, and testify to the significance of physical and biological evidence. Their work involves the understanding and application of a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Their recognition and proper interpretation of pattern evidence is an important component of the work performed by chemists in the Criminalistics Unit.

Members of the Criminalistics Section examine evidence with many types of crimes, such as shootings, beatings, stabbings, sexual assaults, hit and runs, murders, and breaking and entering cases just to name a few. Some of the biological evidence that a criminalist may have to examine could be hair and other body fluids such as blood, semen, saliva, etc. Physical evidence that they may examine could be clothing, fingerprints, documents, and tool mark, etc.

Criminalists may have to analyze DNA matter in order to rule out a suspect. DNA is the identification by genetic code and analysis in crime labs of blood samples and samples of other body fluids. DNA in humans is found in all cells that contain a nucleus, except in red blood cells. Accuracy, reliability, and validity being established in court testimony of DNA experts are growing in a number of cases. DNA testing has become an established part of the criminal justice procedure.

Some different types of evidence that are common to police cases are, (1) weaponsfirearms, (2) weapons- knives and bludgeons, (3) drugs and poisons, (4) imprints and impressions, (5) tool marks, (6) traces of identity-blood, (7) Blood (tests,) (8) hair and fibers, (9) dust, dirt, and debris, (10) flammable fluids-fire and explosive residue, (11) glass, (12) paint, (13) semen stains, (14) wood, (15) suspected poison food, (16) documents, (17) feces, (18) vomit, and (19) urine.

Criminalist use special equipment associated with scientific techniques. Equipment designed especially for identification of firearms and examination of questioned documents are part of the inventory of a Criminalistics laboratory. Equipment for spectrographic analysis has been a part of the Criminalistics scene for many years.

Spectrography is the radiation from an incandescent gas or vapor that is concentrated into certain discrete wavelengths. The spectrograph is an all-purpose instrument for Criminalistics. It will produce a complete elementary analysis of evidence samples containing mineral and other inorganic compounds. Chromatography is another method of separating compounds to identify the components. The equipment that is found in crime laboratories is extensive. Basic cameras, microscopes, spectrographs, and fluoroscopes are being supplemented by computers and space-age devices. Voiceprinting is the graphical identification of voices. Voiceprints are an innovative concept in personal identification and are fast becoming useful tools in criminal investigation. Voiceprint is based on the physical characteristics of each individual’s vocal cavities. These are a person’s throat, mouth, the timing of a person’s speech.

Cryptography is ciphers and codes (cloak and dagger) used to protect the security of underworld communications; decoding. It is used by organized crime personnel because written communications have been found to be less susceptible to investigative examination than telephone conversations. The most common cipher in use by criminals is a simple substitution cipher in which a symbol, letter, or digit stands for another symbol, letter or digit.

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A Analysis of Criminalistics in the Field of Forensic Science. (2022, Jun 26). Retrieved from https://papersowl.com/examples/a-analysis-of-criminalistics-in-the-field-of-forensic-science/