Causes of the Alzheimer’s Progress

Nutrition is vital to the health of an individual. It provides the necessary nutrients that enhance one’s immunity thus preventing the body from infections. Additionally, it equips the body with the necessary mechanism that can fight infections even after development.

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Subsequently, nutrients are instrumental to the health of human beings. Alzheimer disease is a condition that progressively attacks the mental functions including memory and other cognitive aspects (Jevtic et al., 2017). Often, it starts as confusion and short memory loss. One can lose the capacity to account for their time and failure to recognize their family members and friends. After the manifestation of the primary symptoms, they begin to suffer intensive memory losses including failure to identify their personality (Reitz & Mayeux, 2014). Further, the condition leads to the development of dementia which is common among the elderly. Alzheimer has no cure thus management is the only available option towards improving the quality of life of the victims. The medications and strategies enhance the capacity of an individual to lead an independent life despite their challenges. Additionally, joining a support network community helps the patients to cope with their indifference and encourage them to embrace their difficulties. The symptoms of the condition include; confusion and short memory (forgetfulness). However, Alzheimer’s progress differs among different people stemming from varying immunity and physiology. Often, the patient is best-suited to diagnose the condition from experiencing difficulties in recognizing and recalling things (Kosik, 2015). Notably, a second party can identify one is suffering from Alzheimer when they repeat statements unaware they had uttered them initially, misplacing things, and getting lost in familiar environments. The paper discusses the causes of the disease, nutrients that subdue symptoms, medication, and side effects of the therapies.

Causes of the disease

Despite extensive research into AD, there is no definitive response regarding its cause. However, researchers claim that the condition stems from a variety of factors including lifestyle, genetic makeup, and environmental aspects that are injurious to the brain. Almost, 5% of AD cases from genetics (Bloom, 2014). Despite the absence of conviction regarding the cause of the condition, its damages are apparent. Reportedly, patients with Alzheimer disease have fewer brain cells relative to a healthy individual. The reduced number of functioning cells leads to the insufficiency to establish complete circuit connection thus the issues with memories. The death of the brain cells leads to the deterioration of the capacity to execute cognitive tasks appropriately (Gody? et al., 2016). As a result, the condition of the victim worsens as more cells die. So far, the two overriding causes of the condition are plaques and tangles. Plaques refer to an agglomeration of protein (beta-amyloid) that harm and kill brain cells (Bloom, 2014). It affects inter-cell communication thus crippling the coordination of the mental circuit. Therefore, the collection of the protein serves as one of the main causes of AD (Reitz & Mayeux, 2014). Additionally, the absence of tau protein which facilitates the transportation of nutrients and throughout the body is the other cause of the conditions. Often, the blockage in communication stems from the twisting of the tau proteins forming tangles thus impairing transportation and cell-cell connection.

Nutrients that subdue symptoms of the disease

Nutrition is instrumental to both the development and aversion of AD. It refers to the process of supplying the body with food both in the natural and processed state to complement the human system. It provides energy and nutrients that help in the coordination and delivery of varying tasks of human physiology. Since it stems from factors associated with both the lifestyle and environmental aspects, nutrients are vital to the development of the condition (Gustafson et al., 2015). Nonetheless, the identification of the condition relies on the capacity of a physician or patient to identify the symptoms. Subsequently, nutrients affect play a role in the manifestation of the identifiable causative factors. The manifestation of the disease necessitates the re-organization of the diet of the patient, especially among the elderly. Some of the nutrients help in the delaying of various symptoms of the disease. On the other hand, the manifestation of the condition might trigger deficiencies of some nutrients. For instance, the decrease in the serum levels of both Vitamin B12 and C is frequent in AD cases (Barnard et al., 2014). Nonetheless, the provision of large doses of vitamin E helps in the aversion of severe dementia. Therefore, low levels of vitamin E is likely to hasten forgetfulness thus revealing the progressive consequences of the disease. Notably, the supply of other nutrients including; consumption of a diet with increased levels of folate, vegetable, vitamin E, and oils is likely to improve the quality of life of the patients. Accordingly, it enhances the chances of preventing the disease among the elderly (Gody? et al., 2016). As a result, the nutrient requirements serve as some of the factors which can ensure the prevention of AD.

Medication

There is no cure yet for AD. However, there are medications that can help in the delay of severe manifestations. Additionally, they help in the provision of a quality life to the patients that can help them cope with their condition and operate to the optimum levels. Since there is no cure for the condition, there different interventions that manage the varying symptoms associated with the disease. The medications entail four categories including treatment for memory loss, behavior, sleep changes, and alternative management (treatments) (Gustafson et al., 2015). The interventions facilitate the reduction in intensity of the various symptoms of AD. There are two categories of medications explored in the management of the disease. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists. The inhibitors include; Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and Galantamine. They treat the problems associated with the cognitive functioning of a patient. Furthermore, there are varying medications for the cognitive issues for the different stages (Bloom, 2014). For instance, the medication provided at the early stages of memory loss varies from that administered in the severe cases of dementia. Donepezil administration is appropriate for all the stages of the condition while Rivastigmine is only recommended in the early stages of the disease.

Symptoms of the AD include changes in behavior. To treat the latter, it is appropriate to utilize behavioral therapies that will help change the behavior of the patient appropriately. The first step in the management of change in behavior is the identification of the causative factor of the symptom. For instance, changing residence can serve as a trigger. Therefore, the provision of facilities that will promote comfort is some of the strategies of managing the condition. Nonetheless, if the symptoms persist there is an option of introducing drugs to mitigate the change in behavior (Gustafson et al., 2015). Often, AD patients suffer from problems insomnia and other changes in sleep issues. Maintenance of regular timing of meals for bed and waking up can help address the sleep changes. Furthermore, regular physical exercise and avoidance of alcohol can manage the sleep changes problems appropriately.

Nutrient deficiencies as a result of the therapies

People suffering from AD consume a variety of drugs that address the individual symptoms of the disease. The absence of cure necessitates the management of isolated conditions associated with the disease (Newport et al., 2015). For instance, the patients might consume different drugs to curb cognitive problems and a varying set of medication to address changes in either behavior or sleeping pattern. The polypharmacy increases the chances of experiencing detrimental side effects as a result of the conflicting effects of the varying drugs. Nonetheless, the side effects might affect the nutritional balance of the patient thus aggravating the condition.

The accumulation of cholinesterase in the body leads to toxicity thus affecting the physiology of the body. Conversely, it is impossible to eliminate the use of cholinesterase since it is utilized in the treatment of all stages of the disease (Barnard et al., 2014). Furthermore, the administration of tacrine restricts the integration of other herbal medication because it builds up toxicity in the liver. On the other hand, the ingestion of whole bread causes an increase in blood sugar thus triggering inflammation that in turn initiates AD. Furthermore, processed meat including bacon and ham also increases the susceptibility of an individual to the disease (Newport et al., 2015). As a result, both the diet and the medication of Alzheimer are instrumental to the management of the conditions. While some medications lead to the aggravation of the condition, ingestion of some nutrients increases the risk of prevalence of the disease in the population.

Conclusion

Alzheimer is one of the unpleasant diseases due to its progressive nature and absence of a cure. Once an individual suffers from the condition they begin withering away until they reach a severe stage. Medicine and family have no option but to offer emotional and medicinal support to alleviate the quality of life of the patient. Nutrition is instrumental to both the development and management of the condition. The causative factors highlight genetics, lifestyle, and environmental aspects as some of the triggers of the condition. Therefore, focusing on the diet of a healthy and one suffering from AD is pivotal to the management of the condition. Intake of high levels of folate and Vitamins B12 and E promotes the health of the brain thus preventing the manifestation of the severe stages of the condition. On the other hand, consumption of alcohol, caffeine, and processed meat can increase the chances of one attaining the disease. However, after the diagnosis of the condition, there are various treatment approaches both non-drug and drug medication that curb various stages of AD. Conversely, the drugs can lead to the manifestation of side effects that complicate the management process of the disease. Due to the severity of the disease is it better to prevent the condition as opposed to management. As a result, nutritional intake is fundamental to leading a healthy lifestyle thus averting Alzheimer disease.

References

Barnard, N. D., Bush, A. I., Ceccarelli, A., Cooper, J., de Jager, C. A., Erickson, K. I., … & Morris, M. C. (2014). Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of aging, 35, S74-S78.

Gody?, J., Jo?czyk, J., Panek, D., & Malawska, B. (2016). Therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease in clinical trials. Pharmacological Reports, 68(1), 127-138.

Gustafson, D. R., Clare Morris, M., Scarmeas, N., Shah, R. C., Sijben, J., Yaffe, K., & Zhu, X. (2015). New perspectives on Alzheimer’s disease and nutrition. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 46(4), 1111-1127.

Jevtic, S., Sengar, A. S., Salter, M. W., & McLaurin, J. (2017). The role of the immune system in Alzheimer disease: etiology and treatment. Ageing research reviews, 40, 84-94.

Kosik, K. S. (2015). Personalized medicine for effective Alzheimer disease treatment. JAMA neurology, 72(5), 497-498.

Newport, M. T., VanItallie, T. B., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T., & Veech, R. L. (2015). A new way to produce hyperketonemia: use of ketone ester in a case of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 11(1), 99-103.

Reitz, C., & Mayeux, R. (2014). Alzheimer disease: epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, risk factors and biomarkers. Biochemical pharmacology, 88(4), 640-651.

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