Biography : Booker T. Washington
‘’He was born in Franklin County, Virginia. His father was a white slave owner and his mother was a black slave. He grew up and studied under physical labor. At the age of sixteen, he came to the Normal and Agricultural College in Hampton, Virginia, for teacher training. He was appointed president of a college. He also received two master’s degrees. Booker Taliaferro Washington is an American politician, educator and writer. He was one of the most important figures in black American history between 1890 and 1915.’’(Angelique) ‘’He made an important role in this time, and had an extraordinary influence. He has his own beliefs. He has great opinions on the issue of racial discrimination. He also discussed this issue in public speeches. Because he made a very important role, he was invited to dinner at the White House. He was the first African American to win an honor.’’(Mark)
He is politically active, and many political leaders in the United States consult him on black issues. He works with many white politicians and celebrities. He believes that the most effective way for black people to achieve equal rights is to show the virtues of patience, diligence and thrift. He says these are the keys to improving the living standards of black Americans. IN 1895, Booker T. Washington publicly put forth his philosophy on race relations in a speech at the Cotton States, the main point of his speech was that whites could regain their civil rights and social status as long as they were allowed to receive improvements in economic education and fair treatment. ‘’This speech caused a part of the rise, because it made many people feel that they had been treated unfairly, mainly in the north, and finally led to rigid isolation and discrimination patterns throughout the South and the country institutionalized.’’ (Walker, Clarence E)
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‘’Born into a slave family, he had little hope of living in Washington. Like most states before the Civil War, slave children would become slaves. His mother is the cook of planter James. His father, an unknown white man, was sent to the factory when he was very young. He was beaten up for his unsatisfactory work in transporting grain. Once he saw people of his age reading books, so he wanted to do the same, but he was a slave and it was illegal to teach slaves to read. ‘’(Alex)After the end of the civil war. He and his mother moved to West Virginia, where he learned to read and write, and he worked hard every day, after which he decided to talk about his unfair treatment. After that, his speech was very successful and caused a sensation. After this incident, because of his great influence, he was invited to dinner at the White House.
Buck Washington believes that as long as black people possess knowledge, property and good moral character, they will naturally have their due civil rights. So blacks don’t have to agitate or fight against racial discrimination and apartheid. ‘’He believed that the social order of racial discrimination and apartheid was disrupted. It pays for nothing. He warned blacks not to let them know what they want to do. Every part of the United States, like every other part of the world, has its own “customs” and it is wise to respect them.
He put forward the political thought of taking self-help as the core, temporarily abandoning the pursuit of political rights as the premise, prospering the black economy as the foundation, developing black industrial education as the means, and aiming at racial integration. He demanded that the black race ultimately acquire every beauty endowed by the American Constitution through hard work, frugal lifestyle, down-to-earth working attitude and the shaping of Christian personality. The rights of citizens of a country. He practiced physically, founded Tessie Black Teachers College under extremely difficult circumstances, and went around to publicize his views on black struggle and to practice his political thoughts with practical actions, which had a far-reaching impact on the development of the Afro-American Movement after the reconstruction.‘’? Smokey, Robinson?‘’ At the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, in American society, racial relations were bad, white superiors were in power, and black struggle was very complicated.
In this special historical environment, Buck T. Washington did not follow the traditional political struggle line, but did the opposite. He called on black races to abandon the pursuit of political rights and social equality for the time being, to avoid bloody struggle, and to devote themselves to the economic construction of black people. Efforts should be made to improve their moral quality and develop black industrial education. ‘’?Hall Association in Philadelphia?
‘’Booker Washington believes that the development of Vocational and technical education is the cornerstone of the plan to solve the problem of blacks. He believed that blacks in the South had no culture and technology, were extremely poor, and were at the bottom of the economic world. Therefore, it was necessary to teach them PR He placed his full hopes on his vocational and technical education plan and the pure economic line, calling on blacks to temporarily renounce all rights, including the right to vote. In his view, blacks blindly devoted themselves to politics during the reconstruction period, instead of praying for their own economic conditions, and as a result became tools of political struggle, neglecting the “fundamental problem of self-improvement”. Tactical skills through vocational and technical education to make a living and achieve self-reliance. ‘’ (PARK CLOSURES)
Abandoning the legitimate demands of blacks as human beings and American citizens is tantamount to accepting blacks ‘view of racial inferiority.
Point. ‘’He pointed out that although eliminating racial discrimination and obtaining equal rights is a long-term task, blacks should never voluntarily renounce their civil rights, on the contrary, they should persevere in fighting for their rights and fighting against racial discrimination. He said that all the great reform movements and social movements in history were led by encouragement.’’ (Smokey, Robinson)
I think this problem is a matter of principle, or a matter of bottom line. The abolition of slavery in 1865, that is, the legal denial of the existence of slavery is reasonable, the former black slaves are now free people. According to the definition of citizen, “citizen” refers to a person who has the nationality of a country and enjoys rights and obligations according to the law of that country. Citizen consciousness is relative to subject consciousness, which refers to people’s participation consciousness in society and state governance in a country.
Civil political rights refer to citizens ‘rights to participate in the political life of the country according to law. At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the rampant racism in the United States, the growing tension between black and white races and the deterioration of the black situation made Du Bois gradually realize that his limited research on some aspects of the black problem could not cope with the critical moments of black history. He also recognized that Buck Washington’s advice to blacks to give up agitation, to acquiesce in racial discrimination and segregation, to stay away from politics and to immerse themselves in business, made white racists more arrogant and made the situation of blacks worse.
‘’So in 1903, Du Bois published the book The Soul of the Black, which openly challenged Booker Washington. Since then, besides continuing to emphasize the efforts of the black people themselves, he advocated that the black people should stand up and actively encourage them to fight for the equal rights of the black people in politics and society.
Booker-Washington kept silent about the white people’s responsibility for blacks, emphasizing blacks ‘own problems. He said that the backwardness in education and economic poverty of blacks did not make them eligible for civil rights. Likewise, his hope for solving the problem of blacks was mainly placed on blacks. “Everyone, every race, must save themselves,” he said. Du Bois, like Buck Washington, recognizes that the low level of social development of black people is a cause of racial discrimination, but he also emphasizes that racial discrimination is more a cause than a result of the backwardness of black economy and culture. He pointed out that if blacks were poor, it was because they deprived themselves of the fruits of their labor; if blacks were ignorant, it was because white people obstructed the education of blacks. Therefore, Du Bois believes that in order to solve the problem of black Americans, black people should strive to eliminate their own problems, while white people are more responsible for the problem of black Americans. He criticized Buck Washington for putting all the blacks ‘responsibilities on their shoulders.’’ (Hall Association in Philadelphia)
‘’Between 1980 and 1915, Washington played a very important role in black politics. Washington’s famous speech in Atlanta in 1895 made him famous throughout the country as a black leader of political and public concern. Working with white people, he raised money to create hundreds of community schools and institutions of higher education to improve the education of blacks. Washington has improved racial relations in the United States. His autobiography Beyond Slavery, first published in 1901, is the bedside book of President Barack Obama and is still widely circulated today. ‘’(Alex) And he developed into Tuskegee College. Tuskegee provided academic education and knowledge for teachers, but also a large number of practical technical education for black youth.
Running schools is Washington’s ambition. ‘’He believed that providing practical technical education for black youth would enable blacks to occupy a place in society and gain recognition from white Americans. He believed that when the blacks showed that they were responsible and reliable people, they would be able to get all the civil rights. He was the principal of the school until his death in 1915. He succeeded in giving black people equal education, improving their status and self-cultivation. So he realized a large part of his ideal. After that, he praised his contribution to American society. In 1946, the United States coined the first commemorative coin with a black Washington head. On April 7, 1940, Washington became the first African American to appear on American stamps.’’(Angelique)
Long –term Significance
He put forward the political thought of taking self-help as the core, temporarily abandoning the pursuit of political rights as the premise, prospering the black economy as the foundation, developing black industrial education as the means, and aiming at racial integration. He demanded that the black race ultimately acquire every beauty endowed by the American Constitution through hard work, frugal lifestyle, down-to-earth working attitude and the shaping of Christian personality. (Walker, Clarence E). The rights of citizens of a country. ‘’He practiced physically, founded Talkie Black Teachers College under extremely difficult circumstances, and went around to publicize his views on black struggle and to practice his political thoughts with practical actions, which had a far-reaching impact on the development of the Afro-American Movement after the reconstruction. (Robert J. Norrell.)
His political thought has a far-reaching impact on the black movement in the United States. It is of great significance to understand the black movement in the United States as a whole and to explore the way out for the black people by analyzing the historical background of his political thought formation, deeply analyzing its basic content and peeping into its influence on the black movement, the development of the black people themselves, the black politics, economy and education after the Civil War. So his thoughts have played a vital role for the present.’’ (Michael Rudolph)
Booker T. Washington’s political thought has a far-reaching impact on the black movement in the United States. It is of great significance to understand the black movement in the United States as a whole and to explore the way out for the black people by exploring the historical background of his political thought formation, deeply analyzing its basic content and peering into its influence on the black movement, the development of the black people themselves, the black politics, economy and education after the Civil War. His educational thought is based on the needs of the development of the black race and bears the obvious brand of the times. He tried to achieve the self-help and development of the black race through vocational education, and help the black people to acquire the accumulation of economic basis and improve their comprehensive quality. The emphasis on the application of knowledge, practice and the connection with social life in his educational thoughts embodied the characteristics of the times in the development of American education at that time.