Beyond the Individual’s Effects
Over the past couple years, researchers have declared the public awareness for the negative effects of child abuse by their parents which this factor plays an important role in the development of the child’s future. Abuse and neglect damage the psychological and mental health aspects of children who might suffer from these types of trauma during their childhood. There are numerous signs commonly associated with child abuse and neglect that mainly comes from the parents and the people who they interact the most with. Well-established research by journal of child and family department indicates that, if change in parent-child abuse potential (as measured by the Child Abuse Potential Inventory) predicted change in post-assessment child disruptive behaviors (as measured by the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory) in the parenting our children to excellence (Costello, Moreland, Jobe-Shields, Hanson, & Dumas, 2015).
Beyond the individual’s effects, child abuse has a significant impact on society and communities which might be critical to bring other issues on the life of other people. This research is an overlook of all the possible factors which indicates the link between child abuse by the parents and its psychological impacts that mostly changes the mortality of that person in his or her future. Keywords: Child Abuse, Child Neglect, Journal of Child and Family Studies, Depression, Family violence, PTSD, Trauma Parental Child Abuse and Its Post Psychological Traumas as an Adult Child abuse and neglect has been a serious problem that opened the field for researchers to do their investigations in order to find the causes and factors that triggers the effects of this trauma during the childhood of the victims. Parental child abuse is one of the major issues that influence the physical and mental behavior of individuals.
Once a child becomes an adult and has built the symptoms of PTSD such as anxiety and depression, it will be harder for the members of family, friends, and specialists to help the person. In the past couple years, specialists and related institutions are participating in finding the best method to prevent these symptoms to spread its negative effects into families and societies by advertising special classes to train people for better parenting, family supportive services for both financially and psychologically needs, and last but not least providing appropriate medications and treatments to regulate the mental issues that caused from the traumas of child abuse. Although there are many factors involved in terms of development of negative cognitive behavior by parental child abuse, but it is important to recognize and identify the influences that triggers the effect of this trauma and lastly provide essential treatments to prevent and control the symptoms of child neglect and other maltreatment from parental abuse.
Parental child abuse Each year, most child abuse occurs within the environment of the family who raised the kid. There are many factors involved when it comes to a determined explanation of why this type of traumas happen inside a family. Mental and physical health issues, financial and non-financial insufficiency, and last but not least the parental history of child neglect could be the main reasons that triggers the most for such a violence between the parents and their children. Bailey, Deoliveira, Wolfe, Evans, & Hartwick’s (2012) case study on factors that causes child maltreatment indicates that: Although much previous research has focused on sexual and physical abuse, other more contextual forms of maltreatment may be similarly or more strongly associated with certain parenting outcomes. Furthermore, different forms of maltreatment may be associated with perceived versus observed parenting outcomes. (p.4) Research studies such as the one mentioned, have proved that the highest percentage of the child neglect and other forms of maltreatment happen in the families that the parent’s living situation are in poverty.
In some life-threating cases, additional factors such as excessive usage of addictive drugs and alcohol are also influential to the parent’s mental health that makes them abusive to their own children. According to a study that was to evaluate a effects of the parental empathy, Findings suggest that parental demonstration of poorer empathic ability on the analog task was significantly related to increased physical abuse potential, likelihood to punish, and negative child attributions (Rodriguez, 2013). There are physical, behavioral, and emotional symptoms that arises from the particular reactions from the parental abuse that leads to extremely destructive effects to the mental and physical health of the child that experiencing these types of abuses.
Signs and symptoms of child neglect Recognizing the symptoms of parental child abuse could be the trickiest trauma to find due to the boundaries that families must keep within themselves. Physical abuses of a child in this case, occurs by their caregiver which in most of those events ends up not only by their physical harm, but it could also damage their brain stability in future as well. An analysis by the international journal of public health regarding the major signs of trauma caused by child abuse indicates that Parental trauma seems to be associated with perpetration of child abuse within the family. Abusive behavior against children could be a potential trauma reaction, which should be considered in preventive strategies aimed at reducing harm in traumatized families (Montgomery, Just-??stergaard, & Jervelund, 2018). they found that internalized representational models of self and others are a key mechanism underlying the relationship between emotional maltreatment and later psychopathology.
Essentially, actions of emotional and physical abuse and maltreatment convey to the child that they are unwanted and worthless compare to others. Often criticized, they suffer from rejection, disapproval, and emotional neglect. Children then internalize this information, which establishes their concept of self. Later in life, they are more likely to suffer from depression, anxiety, self-criticism, and difficulty forming relationships. This is likely due to the preconception of the primary caregiver relationship from early childhood. There are many risks associated with a trauma of child abuse left untreated and likelihood of developing a psychological problem. As the article mentioned, early interactions with parents contribute to the development of internal working models of self and self-in-relation to others that in?¬‚uence later cognitive schemas and psychological adjustment (Wright, Crawford, & Crawford, 2009, p.59). Every child abuse case is different but if it starts from early ages, it could lead to critical problems in the future of the child and triggers his or her aggressive behavior in a negative path.
Risk factors Many risk features appear to generate similar influences on child’s discipline as a parental method in order to prevent future behavioral issues which this also dependents and varies in every culture. These influences include a combination of important principals that associates with individual, relational, and societal factors which leads to development of the behavioral characteristics of the child. Lopez’s (2012) study found the following information: Data from an ethnically diverse sample of 579 parents enrolled in the PACE (Parenting Our Children to Excellence) program was used to evaluate whether parental child abuse potential assessed at pre-intervention negatively contributed to child affective, achievement, and social coping competence in preschoolers one year later, and whether these associations were moderated by sex or ethnicity.
Cross-sectional results indicated that parental child abuse potential was negatively related to child affective and achievement coping competence, after accounting for variance associated with child behavior problems. (p.1) This research indicates that although there are certain characteristics involved when it comes to diagnosis of a child’s behavioral problems, but relational abuses (mainly from the parents) are the leading principles for the mental destruction inflicted upon them.
Effective assessment through specialists There are several areas for assessments that requires to be guided through special organizations, social groups, and public institutions such as government and health providers to monitor and diagnose the factors that could help the inhibition process of parental child neglect and abuse. These organization are responsible to detect and identify suspected child maltreatment cases by parents and by reporting them to the legal authorities, they could use the help of professionals who have studied and trained for this specific trauma that caused by maltreatment of children in young ages. In most maltreated cases, children do not express enough physical symptoms in order to be diagnosis by the doctors and to be treated in its appropriate way.
Children in these situations mainly suffer from mental and psychological problems which are developing unconsciously as the kid grow up. Skowronski, Crouch, Coley, Sasson, Wagner, Rutledge, &Milners (2016) study case resulted in: Change in effect over time was calculated for each event by calculating the difference between affect intensity at the time of occurrence and affect intensity at recall. Results revealed that participants who reported lower levels of depressive symptoms exhibited the usual FAB effect (i.e., affect intensity associated with negative events faded more over time than affect intensity associated with positive events). However, participants who reported higher levels of depressive symptoms did not exhibit the FAB effect (i.e., the fading of affect intensity associated with positive events and negative events did not differ). (p.5) Early monitoring and analysis of a child’s condition that has been abused by his or her closest family member, could help to prevent PTSD in older ages.
This is an essential factor for responsible organizations to be operational all the time in order to respond and provide the applicable services as quick as possible to lower the risks of other possible traumas that might lead to suicide and death of the child. Prevention and treatment The main important step for specialist to treat PSTD caused by parental child abuse is to find out then categorize the reasons that initiated the behavior. Child abuse is one of the many causes of mental illnesses. Children who have gone through child abuse can later on suffer from PSTD anxiety, mood disorders, and sexual substance abuse. This kind of abuse can alter how a person thinks, making it so that this child believes that they are always in the wrong and that they are not able to do anything right. This could also affect a child in the future, allowing them to believe that others are allowed to abuse them, physically or emotionally as well.
Parental psychological supports are one of the most important ways to teach them how to cope with their emotional depression and frustration in order to take control of their anger instead of venting that to their children. To help readers understand the powerful influences of parenting on lowering the percentage of child abuse crimes, Bailey, Deoliveira, Wolfe, Evans, & Hartwick’s (2012) researched on the influential factors indicated that:
Although relations between maltreatment and global indices of parenting stress were more tenuous than expected, consistent with the majority of past research, a history of sexual abuse was associated with a perceived lack of parenting competence. Variables such as cultural or subcultural parenting norms, the complexity of a mother’s maltreatment history, and genetic factors influencing adaptation to adversity are a few examples of potential moderators of the associations found in the current study In families that the incident of the child abuse has happened in the past, it could be slightly harder for the child to forget or reveal the incident to a specialist. The main goal in this case should be preventing the trauma to happen again and instead use the help of outside organizations to shape and treat the issue. Another way of preventing this type of trauma to spread among the children of a family, would be the mandatory monitoring and reporting by the governmental legal agencies such as child protective service (CPS) that are responsible to evaluate the behaviors of both parents and children within a household.
Although it would be hard to keep track of all the behaviors of an individual but enforcing to do so could be beneficial to prevent the negative outcomes of this disgraceful incident to occur within families. School and educational institutions also play an important role as an effective strategy to first diagnose the trauma from the child therefore they can refer them to special psychologist for further treatments, and also educate them by providing the essential knowledge and skill of how they should protect and defend themselves from any types of neglects maltreatment. Perspectives and conclusion As we concluded, this research has indicated a variety of conceivable psychological and physical techniques to identify the factors that triggers this trauma, so they can be helpful to prevent and treat the effects of PSTD on the child’s future.
There are some people out there who are either unprepared to have a child or believe that the proper way to rear a child is by using abusive techniques. In couple of generations ago, beating the kid as a form a punishment for the wrong behavior they have committed and unfortunately there are some people who still believe that is the best way to punish a child. Such punishments are believed to work the most with individuals that are not cooperating accordantly as parents expecting them to be.
Although there are many factors involved when it comes to the effects of punishment by parents as a way of teaching children for their wrong behavior, but Rodriguez’s (2013) study has proven that, This research has been used previously to estimate abusive parents’ punishment propensity in response to child misbehavior. Mothers also provided self-reports on two measures of child abuse potential, a measure of negative attributions and expected punishment of children using vignettes, as well as a traditional measure of dispositional empathic concern and perspective-taking. This case is also depending on the social and cultural norm of that society.
For example, in Asian cultures, it is very common for the parents to hit the kid in order to instill discipline in them but if the same was done somewhere in the West coast, it would most likely constitute child abuse. There are child abuse and neglect taking place even right now on a larger scale by hands of people who are supposed to protect and teach the kids to build their futures, but instead, they are ruining it for them. I believe as a professional researcher and a member of a community, we should demand the health care researchers to invest their time and money to investigate and develop an effective method to prevent this abusive incident to occur by facilitating the process of educating the young adults before their marriage.