The Mughal Dynasty and Emperor Akbar

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During the years 1500-1750 we learn about many empires that have risen and fall due to many different factors. From the years 1526-1627 the Mughal Dynasty was the dominant power in South Asia. This empire was ruled by Emperor Akbar who in time became one of the most powerful men in the entire world. Some factors that contributed to the prosperity and stability of this empire is military strength, trade, and agriculture. During Akbar’s time as emperor his armies controlled most of the Indian subcontinent, which was about 100 million citizens.

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Due to Akbar’s extensive army he was able to take advantage of the developing trade in the Indian Ocean. Some of their major exports included dyed cotton textiles, pepper, diamonds, and other high-end goods. To strengthen there trade even further the empire also invested in roads to move goods to market more efficiently. Agriculture was the biggest factor in making the Mughal Dynasty prosperous. The agriculture benefited this empire by providing 90% of the tax income that paid for Akbar’s oversized army and the court of Delhi. The factors that led to the fall of this empire were a poor economy due to constant wars, incompetent and week successors and due to corruption moral degradation of the soldiers.

A very famous empire took place at this as well it was named the Ming Dynasty of China. One factor that brought The Ming Dynasty stability is that the dynasty had restored Chinese rule by bringing back traditional Chinese Han rule and the examination system. They empire eliminated any Mongol influence and brought about agricultural and economic prosperity which in turn led to a rise in population. Another factor that brought the empire success was having a powerful army that allowed them to push out the Mongols and control the subjects of China. The Ming Dynasty found prosperity and stability in the 36 countries that agreed to form relationships with China. The Ming Dynasty fell in the year 1644. Some factors that led to this were a poor economy due to government corruption, bankruptcy, and high taxes on citizens. Due to the high taxes and continuous bad harvests led millions to starvation and homelessness. What finally collapsed the empire were the peasants revolting along with the Manchu people getting past the Great Wall of China.

Throughout time until 1750 trade networks were expanding and revolutionizing our world. I would characterize the global trade networks that developed in the fifteenth century as “Always Changing”. The Dutch East India Trading Company, which was considered one of the greatest joint-stock companies. The government of the Netherlands granted a charter giving it a complete control on Dutch trade with Asia. The trade company maintained its control using military force in the Indian Ocean. This secured commercial profit, and introduced techniques to make trade more efficient and effective. The Dutch knew that they had to find goods to sell that would interest the Asian market. Silver was made available to them and they then used that to trade with Asia. During the 1700’s trade was booming in America due to continuing effects of the Colombian Exchange. The Spanish introduced horses and cattle, which supplied meat and an export industry. European and Native American food crops such as wheat, barley, maize, potatoes, squash, and tomatoes increased trade and agriculture productivity greatly during this time. With all this trade comes a rise in slavery as well, this is prevalent in the Americas. The Atlantic Plantation System was the enslavement of Africans who were then forced to move to the Americas to work on plantations. This system brought lots of money to countries like France, Spain, and Britain. The slave labor was utilized to produce large quantities of sugar to international markets.

Societies across the globe were arranged in all different fashions. Some societies were based on wealth; other on religion and even some were based on race. In the Inca Empire, which dated from 1400-1532, the society was divided into groups called all. Ayllu were divided into sub groups in which men would marry women from a different subgroup. Each ayllu would then recongnize common ancestor. Another time in history we see societies formed based on these characteristics is during the ruled of Louis XIV. During his time as king peasants labored for lords land and could subject to manorial courts. To assert his power even more Louis used intendants these were officials who came from the middle class or lower ranking nobles who depended on royal patronage. These officials were all across the country and enforced royal powers. During the time of enlightenment thinker’s societal classifications came up a lot. Montesquieu believed and tried to instill in people that limiting the power of government and rationalizing the distribution of power between social classed would make societies more free and advanced then ever. Through history societal classification appear in all eras but based on our readings three things tend to structure societies those are race, religion, and wealth.

The industrial revolution was so “revolutionary” because it completely transformed society. The industrial revolution streamlined the technology of steam, which created energy for human use. The factory system boosted productivity and created jobs. It revived global commerce because improved transportation and communication allowed industrialist to seek out raw materials and markets. According to Establishing New Work Habits: Factory Rules in Berlin “ Industrialization did not simply create new social classes, new jobs, and new problems; it also created new work habits regimented by the pace of machines and the time clock. It fell on factory owners and managers to instill these habits in the workforce”. The Industrial revolution laid the base for a new society of workers to help form what we know today.

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The Mughal Dynasty and Emperor Akbar. (2021, Jun 17). Retrieved from