Sexual Harassment and Title IX

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Sexual harassment comes in many different forms, both verbal and physical. Consequently, it occurs when one person is giving any unwelcoming and unwanted sexual attention towards another person. There are multiple topics of sexual harassment that I shall discuss, such as harassment in the workplace, at school, gender wage gap, and same sex benefits. Some may not realize that sexual harassment is an issue that is ongoing throughout our society and even with our Title IX implement it has still yet to be stopped completely.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 “Title IX” is a government law that forbids sex segregation in instructive establishments, projects, and exercises that get administrative money related help. The law applies to any scholarly, extracurricular understudy associations and sports, examinations, word related preparing, and other instructive projects from pre-school to graduate school that gains capital or profits by government subsidizing. The whole establishment falls under Title IX regardless of whether just a single program or movement gets government reserves. Some instructive establishments are not secured by Title IX, regardless of whether they do get government subsidizing, such as certain religious associations, military preparing schools, and college clubs and sororities.

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Sexual harassment in the workplace occurs in more ways than most people know. Sometimes it is not just the typical “do this otherwise you’re fired.” It comes in other forms that are not always visible. It can be considered sexual harassment if someone is being treated with inequality based on their gender. One of the cases in the Lingren text mentioned a woman not being able to fulfill the job needs due to her being afraid of heights, therefore she was fired. However, it was also stated that if a male was unable to complete the job, there would have been no consequences. Other forms of sexual harassment can be the unauthorized touching of a person, invading one’s personal space without consent, and also sharing inappropriate video or picture content.

In some cases, it isn’t a physical action that is considered “sexual harassment,” it can be verbal as well. For example, it is unlawful to badger an individual on account of that individual’s sex. Badgering can often incorporate forceful favors in return for job placement as well as gestures that would make one uncomfortable being at work. Badgering does not need to be of a sexual sort, it can incorporate hostile comments about an individual’s sex. For instance, it is unlawful to pester a women by making hostile remarks about the female gender. The victim and the person harassing can be either a male or a female, and the person in question and harasser can be a similar sex. In spite of the fact that the law doesn’t preclude straightforward prodding, spur of the moment remarks, or secluded occurrences that are not intense, provocation is unlawful when it is so deliberate or extreme that it makes an antagonistic or hostile workplace or when it results in an unfavorable business choice like the victim being terminated or demoted.

The harasser can be in the form of an employee, boss, or customer. It is sometimes possible you will find men harassing women in higher power in the workplace due to feeling emasculated. According to McLaughlin, H., Uggen, C., & Blackstone, A. (2012) “The idea of masculine overcompensation – in which men react to threats to their manhood by enacting an extreme form of masculinity – also helps explain why men may harass women in power.” If a male feels that their job is being threatened by a women, they might pick on the female in order to make her uncomfortable to secure their position or assert dominance over her.

Inappropriate behavior is a major issue for students at every educational level. Students in elementary and middle schools, as well as votec schools, apprenticeship projects, universities and colleges can be casualties of lewd behavior. This issue is more typical than you might suspect on the grounds that numerous students are frightened or too humiliated to even consider reporting such vulgarity. It is not quite the same as being a tease, playing around, or different kinds of conduct that you appreciate or welcome. Lewd behavior can be demands for sexual favors or unwelcome sexual conduct that is sufficiently awful or happens frequently enough to make you feel awkward, frightened or befuddled and that meddles with your schoolwork or your capacity to take an interest in extracurricular exercises or go to classes.

According to Rahimi, R., & Liston, D. (2011) “School serves as a significant public space in which girls are impacted by sexual harassment involving sexual name calling, sexual aggression, and the most contemporary forms of cyber harassment.” Inappropriate behavior can be verbal remarks about your body, spreading sexual gossip tidbits, sexual comments or allegations, messy jokes or stories, physical snatching, scouring, blazing or mooning, contacting, squeezing explicitly, rape, visual show of exposed pictures or sex-related articles, or profane motions. Lewd behavior can be inflicted upon anyone, male or female, and certainly takes affect of the person’s daily life and self confidence.

The gender biased wage gap is a common issue throughout a variety of occupations. It is a contemporary issue that is being recognized and society is pushing to change this ongoing problem. The aim of this is to research and explore differences in characteristics of full time male and female employees to examine whether these differences help account for the female-male earnings gap. Differences in career ambition and workplace experience may account for the wage gap. We will also look at whether time taken off due to maternity/paternity leave, and the difference of physical strength between the two sexes has any effect on the difference in pay. I have decided to narrow the wage gaps down to male and female nurses to calculate the different rates of pay for the same job.

To start, it is important to recognize how big the wage gap actually is. A study conducted by the University of California, San Francisco, claims that male nurses earn $5,000 more than female registered nurses per year (Maier, 2015). This gap has remained the same over the past three decades (Maier, 2015). As the pay gap affects the whole field of nursing, the numbers run high when one examines the gap in specialty areas. The study found the estimated salary gap was $7,678 for ambulatory care, $3,873 for hospital settings, $3,956 for chronic care, $6,034 for cardiology, and an attention worthy $17,290 for anesthetists. Over a thirty year career a female will make $155,000 less than a male nurse. This is an atrocity considering over fifty percent of the nurses in the United States are female; a considerable portion of employees whom are subject to unequal pay.

A variety of reasons for the wage gap were explored in Ulrike Muench’s study including hours worked, physical strength, time taken out for child care, career motivation, and workplace experience. The study found that two thirds of the gap can be attributed to differences in education, experience, hours worked, specialization, job position, and geographic characteristics (Muench, Busch, Sindelar, Buerhaus, 2016). Multiple experiments were conducted to discover whether or not these factors had any affect on the female-male earnings gap. To test whether or not the gap is caused by motivational differences between the sexes, the study looked at geographic mobility and changing employers as a way to gauge motivation. Moving from employer to employer is shown to improve wages and help with a diverse resume. They found that more males have a higher mobility rate, causing higher wages within male nurses (Muench, Busch, Sindelar, Buerhaus, 2016).

To examine whether or not the gap is caused by time taken off the job due to maternity/ paternity leave, the study looked at a group of men and women ages 40-45 with no children. They still found that the wage gap was high even when the study group employees had no children. Lastly, to test whether the gap is caused by physical strength the study explored whether females work in areas where physical strength is less demanding. They found that a larger proportion of males work in more physically demanding areas. Jobs with a higher physical strength requirement often pay more (Muench, Busch, Sindelar, Buerhaus, 2016).

There is a clear wage gap between males and females in not just the nursing career but plenty other careers as well. Even though females outnumber males 10:1, they are being paid less for working the same amount of time and putting in the same effort. We hope that our brief study can educate future college graduates entering the nursing career about this inequality. The more nurses with knowledge of this wage gap should bring about a further effort to change it. It is crucial that we as a society spread awareness of these inequalities so that we may curate a brighter future for generations to come. A generation emerging from the chains of sexism and harassment, and stepping into a world of absolute parity.

In conclusion, sexual harassment has been found in the workplace, schools, and gender wage gaps. It has shown to be unfair and discriminatory towards women in the past. In our school systems, we require education on these factors. In the workplace, we expect a just pay rate that is based on fairness and equality. We have a voice that echoes through the halls of the schools and the break rooms in the workplace. The further the awareness is spread, the louder it will grow; and we will not be silenced.

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Sexual Harassment and Title IX. (2021, Apr 27). Retrieved from