The rapid development of the modern world in regards to political growth and independence has resulted in political problems and particular political terrorism and state-sponsored violence. Nations together with their governments are faced with security problems caused by the nuclear proliferation leading to misuse of this materials through wars and violence and terrorism. State-sponsored terrorism occurs when government regime forces or oppresses the minority group.
Terrorism is the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror to achieve political power. It also refers to the creation of violence in against peace targets. It is used by both the government and the non-state groups targeting to abuse the opposing groups. Different nations have experienced various phases of the civil war in their historical times. Political violence prevalence is also different in different countries depending on the degree of stability of a nation. In regards to this paper, Germany and Afghanistan terrorism or rather state-sponsored violence is discussed.
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Prevalence of terrorism and state-sponsored violence in Afghanistan and GermanyIn the history of Afghanistan, terrorism and support for violent substrate movements have been an integral part of its foreign policy making it one of the primary perilous state sponsors of violence and terrorism in the world. Compared to Afghanistan, Germany is one of the nations that have been spared from terrorist attacks though it has occurred in rare cases. Germany cases do not prove to be blood unlike that of Afghanistan. More often than not the government claims that its participation in violence results from the need to control terror as well as revolutionary groups that often use violence. This makes it difficult to assess blame for the state sponsored violence.
What are the causes and effects of the state-sponsored terrorism?With the prevalence rate of state terrorism in Afghani stance, there I high power control and separatism. Afghanistan holds formal state authorities that are centralized by local tribal and ethnic leaders and this has caused weak and ineffective government. With a lot of tribal influence in the local and national government, there is limited accountably and governance vacuum that has led to the weak political security.
The government uses the power at hand to control the minor groups. Again, with 14 groups, ethnicity and tension become the order of the day in the country which results in civil war with both the government and the non-government actors as participants.
Another cause of the state-sponsored terrorism is the critics the government receives from private institutions that are non-governmental. For instance, any opposition journalists that brought to light the impunity of the government and its official, war crimes and local leaders often received threats and violence from the government. Media workers were directly attacked by the government. Ethnicity and local government have sought to retain in power position, and this has been the biggest reason to retain power. The nation has negatively been affected by a high number of civilians losing their lives.
In comparison to Germany, political stability has seen the current state of peace in the nation. Unlike in Afghanistan Germany, does not participate in states sponsoring terrorism. The government also, in Afghanistan, has restricted academic freedom especially that which is un-Islamic. The government only funds certain Muslim related academic work and preservation of learning institutions which in return have been the reason for prolonged violence in the country.
In comparison to Germany, the government has long supported any social, political activity in the country. In this view, Marxist theory illustrate the capitalist state of a country and how the government controls the functioning of its nation.
Taping into this knowledge, the government uses the resources available to oppress the minority group. This has been the case in Afghanistan where the minority group are oppressed including the women and the journalists who try to challenge the government. The conflict theory also argues that a nation is always in conflict war trying to acquire the scarce resources and in this case, political power is in the hands off the few, resulting from ethnicity and in return, this has forced the government into civil war. Therefore these factors have been prevalence in Afghanistan as compared to Germany.
The political stability in Germany and respect for the rights and freedom of its citizens creates a non-peace threat country. The nature and severity of the problem.For a long time, Afghanistan has been in war having both the government and non-state actors participating. Even with the constitution giving the right to peaceful demonstration, most parts of the country do not have this right as the government interferes with this demonstration and dismiss them. The government and antigovernment crisis and conflicts have long seen the un-end of the war in the country. Both parties that are the government and non-state actors are well funded, and this prolongs the protests and the war leading to political instability in the country.
Looking at Germany, a demonstration against the government are peaceful without interference from the government. In most classes, terrorism in the country in nongovernmental and does not lead to any loss of lives. The country also respects the rights and freedom of the citizens as well as forming a government that is not ethnic. Therefore in Afghanistan, states sponsored violence has long been in existence and is deep-rooted considering their government is divided into local and national government which is based on ethnic background. Germany on the other hand, does not have a separate government which promotes it peaceful country and lack of participation on states sponsored violence.
Theories explainedEvery country’s government tries to maintain control over its citizens. As such, crisis are bound to occur if the country or the government receives opposition from its citizen. To begin with, the Marxist capitalism theory and the conflict theory have been used in this paper to describe the political economy of the Afghanistan and Germany. Just to mention, Afghanistan unlike Germany has tried to adopt a capitalist country which has been the cause of the political instability in the country. Afghanistan has been a socialist country trying to shift to capitalism. However, it has long been a capitalist country deciding to embark on a journey of throwing capitalism. It has long been fighting an unending battle in that it has long fought for imperialism which has been the reason for state-sponsored violence. According to Marx, capitalism has used imperialism, war and the welfare state as a way of ending the anti-communist ideology.
The Afghanistan government, therefore, has been in insurgencies, wars and invasions that has led to mass havoc. Invasions in the country by the US and NATO forces brought death and devastation in the country.The imperialist imposed democracy in the country has been a tragedy for the country. Capitalism system of control sees that force is used to maintain the state of the economy as well as political sate. The control of labor power and the means of production are owned by those in power. Competition is also the mode of enforcement of law and order.
As such, conflict arises between the minority and the majority entities. Moreover, other challenges in Afghanistan, such as discrimination of the women have highly contributed to the war in the nation. Moreover, the large-scale use of weapons of mass destruction in the country is supported by the government as well as an imperialist ordinance and the government contracting war firms. Germany, on the other hand, is fully a capitalist nation and law and order lies in the state that does not interfere with the rights and freedom of the citizens. Conflict theory in explaining the political state of the two countries, argues that those in power easily control the rest.
In that, power rests in the hands of the government that is well able to use its institutions to oppress the poor. In this case, the women, the journalist, the minority tribes in Afghanistan are exposed to war as the government fights to maintain its statehood.
Political, every country is facing different challenges. Some of this challenges include violence and terrorism, economic instability, political gridlock and state-sponsored violence among others. Developed countries have well managed these issues compared to the developing countries. Terrorism, whether no state or state terrorism in one of the leading political challenges in the world and its end might be a daydream as there will always be contradictions and disagreements between the government and non-governmental actors. Despite this, it is an issue that can be controlled.
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