Physiological and Nutritional Factors Affecting the Results of Basketball Players
These studies included relevant information on physiological responses such as adenosine triphosphate, phosphocreatine (PCr), and anaerobic glycolysis which all three are included in the anaerobic pathway (Glaister, 2005). Moreover, with respect to physiological responses, heart rate and lactate threshold were also referred in this review as essential variables for basketball performance (Godwin et al., 2007; Paul and Garg, 2012). On the other hand, there are also nutritional demands for the human body and most specifically for the basketball players like carbohydrate, protein, and fat (Bjorntorp, 1991; Pöchmüller et al., 2016; Tipton and Wolfe, 2004).
Additionally, these two categories were analyzed more according to the performance of basketball players and eventually if there is a correlation for instance between fatigue and blood lactate concentration and between anxiety with high levels of heart rate. There were some indications that fatigue is in a relationship with blood lactate concentration and high levels of heart rate with the anxiety in basketball players during the competition (Caprino et al., 2012; Paul and Garg, 2012). Subsequently, efficient nutrition with the appropriate percentage of each macronutrient seems to have some impact to performance and body composition (Smith, Holmes, and McAllister, 2015; Wilborn et al., 2013; Williams and Rollo, 2015).
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There are not enough studies referring about fat and the impact that may induce performance and the human body. It is good to highlight though that dietary lipids are essential for the absorption of vitamins A, D, E, and K in addition to the synthesis of cholesterol and other sex hormones (Smith, Holmes and McAllister, 2015). Finally, the following factors seem to have some effects in basketball players’ performance with negative or positive effects since it depends on how athletes and coaches will take each condition under consideration and how they will respond eventually.
Nowadays physical condition is receiving global attention and is closely associated with sports performance and accomplishments. Based on that, the higher the level of condition, the better the capability of an individual to achieve top-level performance (Mishra and Rathore, 2016). A team sport such as basketball which is an intermittent and high-intensity sport played by both males and females is a combination of explosive power, acceleration, and jumps (Castagna et al., 2009; Scanlan et al., 2012). These variables are essential while there is a relationship between explosive power, acceleration and jump with the performance of basketball players (Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe et al., 2016; Stojanovic et al., 2012).
Except for these key performance indicators, there are physiological and nutritional factors that could possibly affect the performance in basketball players. The sport is based on different physiological demands such as heart rate alteration, for instance during a high-intensity effort inside competition (Mclnnes et al., 1995). Moreover, blood lactate concentration is another indicator regarding physiological demands which demonstrates the fatigue of each individual player (Jimenez-Reyes et al., 2018). Eventually, basketball relies primarily on anaerobic pathways because of the different actions which are mostly based on speed and power (Mclnnes et al., 1995).
Physiological demands are essential in order to distinguish the physical condition of each player and in that way, there is a possibility for the coach to find solutions in order to solve issues such as fatigue during a match and increase the performance (e.g. speed, power, vertical jump). Additionally, another source of energy and improvement of performance is efficient nutrition (nutritional demands) (Maughan and Shirreffs, 2011). It is very important for athletes to have balanced nutrition habits contained with decent portions of carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins in order to reinforce their immune system and eventually to enhance their physical condition, strength and generally their performance (Maughan and Shirreffs, 2011).
- Anaerobic pathway
- Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is essential for high-intensity efforts (5 to 6 seconds) like the sprint, while is resynthesized predominantly from anaerobic sources such as phosphocreatine (PCr) degradation and glycolysis with aerobic metabolism to contribute in a small percentage