Philosophy of Feminism and Gender Inequality

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Chapman, Mary. “‘Are Women People?’: Alice Duer Miller’ s Poetry and Politics.” American Literary History, vol. 18, no. 1, Spring 2006, pp. 59–85.

This article is about a column made in “New York Tribune” that talks about women being people. In the article Chapman says how the column is concerned with the government’s responsiveness to the people and Miller repeatedly quoted U.S. President Woodrow Wilson and other legislators allied with the anti-suffrage campaign. She highlighted many things from the column such as gaps between boasts. Now this article doesn’t have anything to do with my topic, but I feel that many feminists would refer to this article. They would most likely connect with the article talking about women being people or not.

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“Framing Women’s Status Through Multiple Lenses.” ASHE Higher Education Report, vol. 37, no. 1, Mar. 2011, pp. 15–35.

To begin this article doesn’t really connect with my topic, but it is useful because it does deal with gender inequality. The article doesn’t really have an author, it is an educational report. The author states their views on the status of women who are studying or working in higher education in the U.S. including the challenges that they face, and the gains made. They state they feel women have always been discriminated against as they are treated as the weaker sex. I feel as though over the years this has been true. Women aren’t shown equal rights since the beginning. She explores the factors that contributes to gender inequality and various approaches to address it. There are many factors such as health, wealth, race, and many more things that contribute to gender inequality.

Gordon, Linda. “Socialist Feminism: The Legacy of the “Second Wave”” New Labor Forum vol.22 no.3 pg.20-28 Sage Publications Inc September 3,2013

This article didn’t really tie into my topic, but its has a broader stand point which is why i used it. Gordon says that the “Second Wave” feminism was the largest social movement in the U.S. history where majority of U.S. women were identified with it. Gordon states that social feminists had concluded that capitalism was by no means the root of male dominance and that a new theory was needed to understand its structures and continued reproduction. I loved how Gordon talks about the movement that was important to women.

Healey, Justin. “Gender Discrimination and Inequality.” Thirroul, New South Wales: The Spinney Press, 2014., 2014. EBSCOhost,

Many countries have made real progress towards gender equality in recent decades. However, Australian women continue to earn less than men, are less likely to advance in their careers, and more likely to spend later life in poverty. Many women could relate to this article though due to what Healey talked about in it. Gender discrimination is something that feminist are striving to change about the world. This topic isn’t close to my general statement due to it being about discrimination and not about feminist who have some sayings about it. I do however love the article with everything Healey talked about.

Junior Scholastic “It’s about freedom” Opposing Viewpoints in Context November 23,2015

This article is based on Emma Watson talking about her view of gender inequality. One is that she thinks it is right that her as a woman should be able to make decisions about their own body. There is no country in the world where all women can expect to receive these rights. Both men and women should feel free to be sensitive. In my perspective i feel that even though many feminist women look at gender inequality as a way for freedom for women whereas on here she looks at it for men and women. If we stop defining each other by what we are not, and start defining ourselves by what we are, then we can all be freer. She thinks it is right that women be involved on her behalf in the policies and decisions that will affect her life. This article is more so about changing the nation as a whole where we all have rights and freedom no matter the gender.

Kavanagh, Shane A., et al. “Is Gender Inequity a Risk Factor for Men Reporting Poorer Self-Rated Health in the United States?” PLoS ONE, vol. 13, no. 7, July 2018, pp. 1–15.

To begin this article doesn’t fit with my topic but has a strong viewpoint about gender inequity rather than inequality. It more so talks about men and their stakes at risk rather than women. Kavanagh talks about how gender inequity was measured with nine variables which are higher education, women’s reproductive rights, abortion provider access, elected office, management, business ownership, labor force participation, earnings and relative poverty. Other than gender there is also age, income, education, race/ethnicity, marital status and employment status that are judged by people. There are many talks about how gender inequity increases men’s health risks. The author says that the study contributes to a growing body of literature implicating gender inequity in men’s health patterns. All in all, this topic is far from my statement that i said, but it gives a different perspective.

Keyes-Bevan, Bronwen. “A human rights issue: The U.N takes on gender inequality” Opposing Viewpoints in Context pg. 39 March 14,2016

Keyes talked about Un women launching HeForShe which is fighting gender inequality globally. This article is about human rights and societal issue, which means we need everyone engaged. This article is about making a program to where they strive to help men and women gain gender inequality. Keyes also talks about how beyond a human right having, education is also the most effective way to eliminate inequality and grow economies. There is a global solidarity movement that invites boys and men to act as equal partners in ending gender inequality.

Kourany, Janet. “Feminist Philosophy of Science: Contemporary Perspectives” Encyclopedia of Philosophy 2nd edition. Vol 3. pp 593-598 Macmillan Reference, USA 2009

Kourany says that feminist is being diverse, but all share a commitment to gender equality and a determination to bringing it about. Neglecting women’s needs and priorities in the employment and household sectors in economic model-building. I would have put this as something that support my topic, but feminist scientists pointing out a great deal of sexist science doesn’t support my topic. There is a naturalist feminist and a political feminist approach in this article that Kourany adds. I love this article gives different perspectives by many feminist and how each still ties to gender inequality.

Minta, Michael D. “Gender, Race, Ethnicity, and Political Representation in the United States.” Politics & Gender, vol. 8, no. 4, Dec. 2012, p. 541. EBSCOhost,

Minta is focusing on the person Hanna Pitkin who argues that legislators should be judged by their actions and not just their closeness in characteristics to their constituent’s descriptive representation. In the article Pitkin’s framework is the standard that political representation the most common question of whether the presence of women or racial and ethnic minorities in legislatures results in greater responsiveness to female or minority interests. Many questions get asked about females dealing with politics. Do female legislators better represent the interests of women in U.S. congressional committee hearings? This article doesn’t have anything to do with feminist or feminism, but still gives takes on the subject of gender inequality.

Neckerman, Kathryn M., and Florencia Torche. “Inequality: Causes and Consequences.” Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 33, Aug. 2007, p. 335. EBSCOhost,

In the article Neckerman and Torche talk about how gender inequality has many problems to it and how it started. Some causes of gender inequality are inequality of earnings, wealth, and opportunity. We also explore the social and political consequences of inequality. Then there is also health, education, crime, social capital, and political power that can cause it. The article talks about how inequality is a world trend which happens across the nation. There has been sociologist that have done advanced research on inequality that brings discipline-based expertise to bear on the organization and political economy of firms and labor markets. They say that inequality has an effect, and the social, political, and cultural contingencies that might modify this effect.

Stephens, Nicole M., and Cynthia S. Levine. “Opting Out or Denying Discrimination? How the Framework of Free Choice in American Society Influences Perceptions of Gender Inequality.” Psychological Science (0956-7976), vol. 22, no. 10, Oct. 2011, pp. 1231–1236. EBSCOhost,

This article is about how in the workforce women don’t get the chance to have a higher promotion than me. Now this doesn’t have anything to do with feminist, but it has a great perspective. Stephens says that women still confront workplace barriers that hinder their advancement at the upper levels of organizations. Then she says how most Americans fail to recognize that such gender barriers still exist. Focusing on mothers who have left the workforce, we propose that the prevalent American assumption that actions are a product of choice conceals workplace barriers by communicating that opportunities are equal, and that behavior is free from contextual influence.

Wright, Hannah. “Gender Equality is tied to Peace” Opposing Viewpoints in Context Greenhaven Press March 3,2014

In this article Wright says that peace is vital to promote gender equality, while gender inequality can also undermine peace and drive conflict and violence. In my take many places are of more masculinity which can be a cause of violence or aggression on the topic. Women political activism have been coupled with a violent backlash against women trying to claim their rights. Wright says that a standalone goal on gender equality and women’s rights can contribute towards peace. Targets should address the forms of violence that most often affect women as well as men. Commitments on inclusive governance should aim to boast the participation of women. From my perspective even though a rally for gender equality starts off peaceful it may get violent due to people who don’t want gender equality.

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