Pathophysiology of Community Acquired Pneumonia

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Updated: Dec 16, 2022
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Pneumonia is severe infection of the lung, that can be caused by a contagious agent such as bacteria, fungus, virus, or parasitic (Franco, 2017, p. 621). These transmittable agents get to the lungs via several means, either with desire, breathing, or hematogenous spread from various other infection in the body (Lewis et al., 2017, p. 500).

Pneumonia can be categorized as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). To be classified as CAP, individual that has the pneumonia must not been hospitalized or lived in lasting care center within the last 2 week from start. For HAP, individual has the pneumonia within two days after a hospital stay, non-intubated and the signs was not present when person was admitted (Lewis et al., 2017, p. 501).

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Types of microbe that creating CAP are practically microbial, but concerning five to ten percent of the instances are triggered by infection. One of the most common microorganisms that triggering CAP is Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive microorganisms (Franco, 2017, p. 624). CAP likewise can be caused by fungal infection, and according to Central for Condition Control and Avoidance (CDC), CAP that caused by fungi gets on the surge in southwestern USA, like The Golden State or Arizona. The illness is named Coccidioidomycosis, or even more popular as valley fever.

Despites of pneumonia kinds and different microorganism that creating it, the condition process is practically the exact same. After the contagious agent infiltrate the lungs, it activates inflammatory reaction from the body. During the inflammation, the blood flow and also the vascular permeability are boost. This increasement activates the neutrophils, type of white blood cells that swallow up the microorganism. Considering that more and more neutrophils attracted to swelling site, it triggers edema in the respiratory tract and the fluid from the capillaries and also the tissue mosts likely to the alveoli. Alveoli that has fluid in it can refrain from doing its task to exchange gas properly. This problem creates ventilation– perfusion mismatch (V/Q mismatch), bring about hypoxia, low oxygen level on cells level (Lewis et al., 2017, p. 502). The condition which the lungs is inflamed and also filled with liquid is called blockage. The next progression of pneumonia is loan consolidation stage, where neutrophils, red blood cell as well as fibrin (exudates) fill the alveoli. In addition, in advance phase of loan consolidation, the fluid with red blood cell, fibrin as well as lung cells in the lungs creating a solid mass (Franco, 2017, p. 623).

Indication of pneumonia connected with bacterial infection or fungal infection are cough (either productive or nonproductive), fever, exhaustion, pleuritic breast pain, lack of breath, crackles on lung sounds, tachycardia, tachypnea, dyspnea (Lewis et al., 2017, p. 502). RS grievance of shortness of breath, cough and also chest pain when she showed up in ASVH emergency room, which reflecting the pneumonia signs.

Usual analysis studies that made use of to diagnosed pneumonia is chest radiography (upper body x-ray). Because pneumonia causing inflammatory exudate, the x-ray will certainly reveal opacification on the wattle(s) of the lung (Franco, 2017, p. 628). In RS’s chest x-ray outcome, there was several places of opacification off duty lower wattle shown, which adjust the diagnosis, CAP off duty lower lobe. From the x-ray result, physician also able to recognize that she did not have any complication from CAP, such as pleurisy (swelling of pleura), pneumothorax, or pleural effusion (collection of liquid in pleural room).

Throat society, blood society and calculated tomography (CT scan) additionally made use of to establish the reason representative of the pneumonia. Considering that RS was not responded to empiric antibiotic treatment (Azithromycin) on outpatient basis, CT scan outcome is extremely essential to determine the best treatment. From the CT scan outcome, numerous blemishes with ground glass opacification are noted on both lungs, which represent the congestion process of pneumonia. On the left wattle, CT check kept in mind nodular opacification that show consolidation phase. Atelectasis also seen on RS’s both lung bases. The CT finding can stand for infection illness that can be caused either fungus or microorganisms. Hence, RS’s doctor and pulmonologist additionally detected her with suspected valley fever while awaiting the society resulted.

The primary therapy for pneumonia is antibiotic therapy. For CAP, empiric antibiotic should be prescribed immediately to stop difficulty. For healthy and balanced people without comorbidities and has no hatred azithromycin, macrolide (erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin) is the initial drug of option. Tetracycline likewise can be used to deal with CAP without comorbidities if person has hatred macrolide. RS reported that she had completed the azithromycin antibiotic prior hospitalization with no renovation in her problem. Based upon CT result, RS than treated with treated with antifungal drug (Fluconazole) and antibiotic?-lactam (Piperacillin-Tazobactam).

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Pathophysiology of Community Acquired Pneumonia. (2022, Dec 16). Retrieved from